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University of Waterloo
Simon Wood

Lecture 1 5/9/2013 3:45:00 PM TED – technology, economics and demographics th Tests – may 30 25%  June 27th 30%  Exam 45% ** non cumulative final exam covers everything What is popular music? If its not popular is considered art music or classical music Post world war 2 - a fusion of rhythm n’ blues (black culture) country and western (rural south of USA; white culture) and tin pan alley (urban northern white culture) - all 3 are very well develop and separate by the end of the war - they are separate mostly due to racism - marginalization based on economic standing also separated them - southern states wanted to keep slavery / northern states didn’t = civil war Popular music = Dependant on the development of:  The middle class  Large urban populations  Copyright law  Technologies of mass production and broadcasting Myth that elvis invented rock and roll; not the truth Chuck berry* was doing the same things as elvis – he never became as popular Black Culture in North America: - North American Slave Trade 1619 – 1863 Treatment of slaves = - differences in north and south America based on religion - African retentions less obvious in North American music South American split between portugese and spain French and british also crontrols parts of north America _rock and roll area (northern) was controlled by the brittish based on religion* catholic vs. protestan - catholic slave owners : slaves were allowed to keep a lot of their African practices - cultural practices that came from aferica were surpressed Most slaves from Africa came from the western side of Africa and went over to north America African Retentions: 1. interest in persecution and distorted timbers (quality of sound) *western perspective = distortion is bad 2. value in the ecstatic and the cathartic  from a western perspective this is seen as bad again – it is seen as loosing control / from an African perspective it is seen as commitment and hard work 3. rhythmic complexity – syncopation (hard to tell where the pulse is – verry strong rhythm)  European developed harmony and melody quite well; but not rhythm* / west African culture hard stronger rhythm and weak harmony 4. use of riffs  riff = a self contained musical fragment that repeats over and over as the basis for a piece of music / key part for creating music in west African culture / ** a riff doesn’t change, it stays the same throughout 5. use of call and response  audience participation in rock songs but not in Mozart – in western art music /symphony you cant participate / the show is only as good as the audience makes it Early music of African Americans (pre civil war) is primarily vocal (acapella) - Work Song: songs by slaves to entertain themselves while working, no instruments, - pass time / set pace, coordinate work - song leader (individual who began the signing – they could be sold for more money than regular slave – they could improve the work of the others, typically men) - floating pool of verse = a song leader would take song fragments and create new songs each day, they would tell a story or a joke *cant actually listen to slaves because recording was after their time Old Alabama 1947 (work song) 433 433 443 4333 4333 aab aab aab aaab aaab (these are verses) - letters show that (lower case = lines of words; they sign a line of words = line a vs line b – if you sign the same line twice: a a ) - the numbers refer to how many measures/bars each line gets Folk Music - performed by amateurs - for self or community enterianment -oral tradition - more concern with tradtion than innovation (lacking self consciousness – thinking actively about what you do – what will make me more interesting than them so that people will pay attentinoto me instead ) - it is done out of love not for money or popularity - you learn these through the generation before you Spirituals / Gospel: - adoption of European hymns - interpretation of the bible  Lined Hymn (song) no date = distortion of vocal timbre Lecture 2 5/9/2013 3:45:00 PM Spirituals / Gospel: - adoption of European hymns - interpretation of bible “Lined Hymn” (no date) - distortion of vocal timbre American Civil War 1861-1865 Post slavery 1865- -instiutionilized racism -acceleration of rural to urban shift -new forms of music appear during the late 1800’s  1/ragtime 2/jazz 3/blues civil war = the reason: the usa fought the war of independence against Brittan, the new usa created itself of a republic to try and get away from the European idea of monarchy, they wrote this idea in the declaration of independence (i.e all men are created equal) except the usa had an economy based on slavery – which is extremely unequal. Slowly in the north slavery began to diminish; the south still held onto slavery strongly / by the middle of the 1800’s the usa was divided (*mississipi river divides usa left and right) right side had states / left side had territories – the states had to declare whether they were a slave state or free states  the civil war ended slavery the war starts, Jan. 1 1863 lincoln slaved the amcipation act that ended slavery in the usa (although it continued until until 1865) the north had won, slavery was ebolished whenever you get a shift in the TED – culture gets a BIG change  overnight Africans went from bei
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