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Lecture 1

MUSIC140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Beat Radio, Benny Goodman, Wdia

Course Code
Simon Wood

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Test 1 Review June 1st 2017
Shifts in below creates shifts in music
Pop Music
Shapes by people we have never heard of
Diane Warren (1956- ) Songwriter
12 Grammy Nominations
8 Academy Award Nominations
songs used in over 60 films
over 100 songs on “Billboard Top 100” songs including
32 top-ten and 9 No. 1s
Artists include: Beyoncé, Lady Gaga, Justin Bieber, Celine Dion, Aerosmith, Rod
Steward, Gloria Estefan, Alice Cooper, Whitney Houston, Cher, Heart, Rihanna,
Chicago, Faith Hill, Leanne Rhimes, Tony Braxton
What is Popular Music?
Hard to define
Idea that changes over time
Brings in the new and rejects the old
Not classical music
Music meant for entertainment
Significant interest in commercial success
By 1945:
End of WWII
Economic growth
Explosion of birth rates (baby boom)
Music under goes huge change
End of the “Big Band” era
Big Bands had dominated music industry since mid 1930s
o Jazz music
EXAMPLE: “Sentimental Journey” (Brown/Homer/Green, 1944) Performed by Les
Brown and His Band of Renown, featuring Doris Day
o Vocals come in late
o Focus was on the instruments
o Now we focus on the vocals
o The song is anthem of the return home for soldiers
Band leaders such as Benny Goodman, Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Tommy Dorsey
were the “stars” of this period
During the late 1940s, there would be a returning to the focus on vocalists
Music industry divided into three distinct categories
1. Popular (or pop): white/middle class/urban
a. Targeted at audience that had money
b. Doris Day Sentimental Journey

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2. Race: black, regardless of class or location
a. Name change to rhythm and blues later on
b. Roy Brown Good Rockin’ Tonight 1947
3. Hillbilly: origins in poor, white, rural is now migrating to urban areas
(particularly in the southern US)
a. Name change to Country/Western by 1950s
b. Roy Acuff Wabash Cannonball
Importance of economics and race in music/music history
Products of the music industry are sheet music and recordings
Sheet music dominates recordings until the later 1920s
While sheet music is still important, by the end of WWII the Recording Industry has
come to dominate
Quality of recordings increased to the 90s but then decreases
Development of American Music Industry:
What creates the conditions for Popular Music to become a consumer product?
Copyright law intellectual property.
o The statue of an (England)
o Modern copyright law
o Largely based on models out of England
1790s to 1830s Amendments to the copyright law to cover sheet music
o Enough people trying to make a living writing music so they need laws
The Victorian Ballad:
Most of 1800s the Queen was Queen Victoria, Victorian Era
Ballad = song
Industrial Revolution factories, creation of working-class
Rise of Middle Class
Luxury items Piano a symbol of wealth
Daughters pursue “leisure” activities
Women don’t have to work – shown through their clothing (hoop skirts, corsets), nail
These are ways to demonstrate our wealth
Women learn to play the piano for your own entertainment and your family’s
Parlour Songs
o Parlour = nice front room in a house
o Aimed at young middle class women to play on their piano at home
Believe Me, If All Those Endearing Young Charms Thomas Moore (early 1800s)
o Solo female voice accompanied by piano
o AABA form
Musical structure with capital letters
Lyrics in lower case letters
Somewhere over the rainbow good AABA form

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o Invite boss and his son over for dinner and then daughter performs and son falls in
love and you move up the working class one rung
o Piano Accompaniment
o Vocal control
o Themes: loyalty, honesty, control, restraint
AABA most common formal structure used in parlour songs
Demand for newly composed songs leads to the increased organization of the music
Tin Pan Alley:
Charles K Harris, “After the Ball” 1892
o Parlour song
o Singer backed up by small orchestra
o Performed in parks
o Within 2 years it sold over 5 million copies with only 100 million people
o Today that would be a single today selling 20 million copies
o Sheet music sells over 5,000,000 copies
o The first “Hit Song”
o Why then?
Total population of US increases from 1790-1900
Rural population decreased and the urban population increases
Cities are key as selling in rural areas you have to walk many hours to sell
a few copies
Can sell thousands in a day in a city
Need urban population to sell massive numbers of copies
o Success of “After the Ball” gives birth to Tin Pan Alley (TPA)
Heard version everyone playing pianos at night with windows open
because its hot, sounds like cats hitting tin pans
Other version tin pans = gold rush, looking for sparkle in the pan, the
one person to make you rich, looking for hit song
Both a musical style and a place:
o Manhattan in New York City
o Becomes the center of professional music making
o During 20s and 30s 21,000 publishers, 36,000 composers
o Division of labour: composer, lyricists, publisher, publicity, performers
Given to us by industrial revolution
Result is consistency and high quality
o Sheet music dominates (transition to recordings beings during the 1920s)
Division of labour profound influence on early history of pop music industry
Style Lyrics:
Basic rhyme scheme
o Short words
Subject: idealized romance beginning and ending
Style: Music
Easy to play
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