Looks at these 3 concepts from positions of power and authority. Sees history as a drama of military and political competition among. Set of ideas to understand world and manage/work within it. Not just 1 theory, but an intellectual tradition/philosophical outlook that and power ( rivalries of power)* objectives consensus is much less important than the assertion if authority and power. Realpolitik = state policies based on consideration of material power and expediency, as opposed to ethical or ideological considerations. From otto von bismarck (pm, germany nation-state), latter of 19th cent. Machtpolitik = synonym for (cid:498)power politics(cid:499) (cid:523)macht = power in german(cid:524) Political realism = what power politics is referred to as; implies that we are dealing with the real world, not a world of ideals and values, asserting that it is not an idealistic perspective. 2 common themes: the ends justify the means + in order to achieve. Contains enduring lessons for how political world works at the macro-level.