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Peace and Conflict Studies
PACS 201
Nathan Funk

CONFLICT, VIOLENCE, AND PEACE Conflict Recognizing conflict:  Expression of struggle  Confrontation (aggressive or not)  Not recognizing someone’s opinion  Involves partnership  Emotional intensity  Disagreement Conflict = Latin—idea of striking things together  Basic to life; w/o it, may mean there isn’t life  What results of existence, real/imagined, of incompatible interests, goals, beliefs or activities  Argued that it is inherently good/bad depending on how we handle it (constructive/destructive)  Not the same thing as violence; violence is a type of conflict  Is normal; natural; sign of life  Most conflict in the world is not violent Violence Violence = Latin—to violate  Harm or degradation: action that violates wholeness or integrity of a living system  Condition that deprives us of our full humanity  3 types: - direct (seen) - structural (unseen) - cultural (unseen) *all interrelated  Direct violence: - clear actor and clear victim - action that cause harm is obvious - i.e. war, genocide, terrorism, domestic abuse, harassment  Structural violence: - “cold” or institutionalized violence caused by social systems - usually assumed to be dealing with preventable and unnecessary harm to human beings - indirect: no obvious perpetrator - exploitation, repression, environmental destruction, unequal distribution of life chances - i.e. homelessness, malnutrition, slavery  Cultural violence: - “mental” or symbolic violence - beliefs and attitudes that justify, affirm, or encourage direct or structural violence may themselves be regarded as “violent” - i.e. stereotyping, racism, dehumanization, militarism, “virtual violence” as entertainment Apartheid in South Africa:  System of distinguishing “whites” and “non-whites” - unequal facilities, inclusion, and representation in political power - cultural violence to races - structural violence to life expectancy and chances; very different - direct violence; need for police violence to maintain system; counter
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