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Week 8 Options for Transforming Conflictual Relationships.pdf

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Peace and Conflict Studies
PACS 201
Nathan Funk

Week 8-Options for Transforming Conflictual Relationships 8a Culture and Human Needs DIGGING DEEPER: THE SEARCH FOR UNDERLYING ISSUES AND MOTIVATIONS *slide* ~triangle-top down=Positions, Interests, Values and Beliefs, Basic Human Needs -Positions -Interests ▯ -”Separate interests from positions” ▯ ~what someone says they want from a negotiation, isn’t necessarily the same ▯ thing as their most fundamental interest -Values and Beliefs ▯ -includes Cultural Differences ▯ -”Understand shared and differing value priorities” -Basic Human Needs ▯ -”Be mindful of basic human needs” HUMAN NEEDS THEORY ~tried to develop a concept of non-negotiable human needs that need to be respected in a situation of conflict *Fears: ▯ -What are the “nightmares”? What is the other side afraid of? ▯ ▯ ~ie Israeli/Palestinian conflict ▯ ▯ ~Israel=second Holocaust ▯ ▯ ~Palestine=national humiliation (no dignity or future, it’s going to get ▯ ▯ worse, or never going to end) ▯ ▯ ~Empathy!-forming relationships, learning peoples stories, *Basic human needs: ▯ -What are the most essential stakes and motivations? ▯ ▯ -Identity/dignity ▯ ▯ ▯ ~many civil wars are about identity ▯ ▯ ▯ ~whose identity prevails in the state? What happens to the ▯ ▯ ▯ ethnic/▯cultural group that doesn’t believe that their language or ▯ ▯ ▯ culture is protected? ▯ ▯ -Security/control ▯ ▯ ▯ ~if people feel their security is threatened, don’t expect them to ▯ ▯ ▯ react cooperatively ▯ ▯ ▯ ~control over circumstances/reality ▯ ▯ -Development ▯ ▯ ▯ ~if we don’t feel that life is progressing, growing, economically, ▯ ▯ ▯ culturally, ▯ ▯ ▯ ~we are excluded-others are developing and we are not ▯ ▯ ▯ ~relative deprivation ▯ ▯ -Meaning ▯ ▯ ▯ ~need to make the work whole again ~one sides needs can only be respected and fulfilled IF the other sides needs are fulfilled simultaneously ~not scarce if there is trust and understanding 1 Week 8-Options for Transforming Conflictual Relationships “[E]motions are extremely informative; they help disputants and mediators recognize what is important and why, as well as providing the motivation and energy to engage in management efforts.” (Keashley & Warters, p60) ▯ 8a1 Humiliation *(Courseware, p93) *”the enforce lowering of a person or group, a process of subjugation that damages or strips away their pride, honour or dignity.” (Dindner, quoted in Rosenberg) ~proposition=we live in a world in which groups of people no longer are able to accept the idea that it’s OK to be second class, that there are certain kings or aristocrats, or nations that have empires and that’s fine, we are all in our place in the world ~increasingly we live in a world where there is s normal idea of equalitarianism or equality and violations of that norm are experienced as an imposition, as a humiliation and that this is profoundly escalatory in conflict *Links to extreme nationalism, terrorism, etc.? ▯ ~humiliated force tries to get the power back ▯ ~occupation is humiliating *Implications: ▯ -Can the strong avoid humiliating there adversaries? ▯ -Can this political emotion be transformed (the “Nelson Mandela option”)? ~complex dynamics-economic, ethnic etc ~interplay between political economy and ethnicity and psychology-need to be sensitive to it ~trying to avoid deep humanization and categorization of large groups of people ▯ 8a2 Ways of Relating and Communicating *Patterns of cultural differences ▯ -Individualistic/collectivist (Courseware, p84) ▯ ~individual-own objectives, looking after self, approach conflict in direct ▯ ways, ▯ seeking to fulfill personal objectives ▯ ▯ ~ie climbing Mount Everest ▯ ~collectivist-membership in the group is just as important as your identity as an ▯ individual-you fulfill your identity (and other needs) more in relation to others, and ▯ you give loyalty to other members of the group for various goods it can provide ▯ ▯ ~complex social ethic ▯ -High context/low context ▯ ▯ ~patterns of communication ▯ ~High context-cultures have different levels of importance to the environment ▯ when they collect data or interpret signals for others or act *Cultural miscommunication ▯ -Directness/indirectness ▯ ▯ ~directness-low context cultures, individualist cultures, communicate more ▯ ▯ directly, explicitly, and verbally (I tell it like it is, straightforward) 2 Week 8-Options for Transforming Conflictual Relationships ▯ ▯ ~indirectness-high context-subtlety, using codes, trying not to offend ▯ ▯ someone, using non-verbals ▯ -Priority given to “face” issues, public image (vs. private self-image), ▯ respect, harmony ▯ -Verbal/nonverbal messages ▯ -Ways of dealing with relationships (Courseware, p83) “One of the major difficulties peacemakers confront in conflicts between groups from different cultures is the uncertainty about cultural values.” Paul Peterson (p.183) FOUR KINDS OF CULTURAL ENCOUNTERS (PEDERSEN) ~not tested on grid *Perceived common values (“shared positive expectation”), and confidence in ability to read and anticipate “other’s” behaviour *Perceived common values, but behaviour is unexpected (may even appear hostile) ▯ ~hard to ‘read’ people, expect common values, expect things that are similar ▯ ~this is where culture shock starts ▯ ~peoples behaviour is not transparent, don’t know why they are doing what they ▯ are doing, what their intentions are *Perceptions of major value differences, and doubting motives behind “other’s” seemingly similar behaviour ▯ ~even when they act like we expect, we don’t trust them *Perception of major value differences, and convincing that “other” is actively trying to cause harm ~there is no right or wrong culture-need to be flexible and aware of what’s going on ~from wherever we a
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