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Week 7-Sources of Conflict and Conflict Resolution.pdf

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Peace and Conflict Studies
PACS 201
Nathan Funk

WEEK 7-SOURCES OF CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION 7a Introduction to the Conflict Resolution Paradigm *If we want to prevent violence and create conditions favourable for peace, what should we do? ▯ - According to the Power Politics Paradigm... ▯ ▯ ~arm yourself, be prepared ▯ -According to the World Order Paradigm... ▯ ▯ ~bolster global governance, institutionalizing cooperation, get consensus ▯ ▯ on norms, ▯ -According to the Conflict Resolution Paradigm... ▯ ▯ ~conflict is inevitable but violence doesn’t have to be, danger and ▯ ▯ opportunity, work on the relationship, develop good skills for dealing with ▯ ▯ differences, become a better analyst, CONFLICT RESOLUTION *not just about ending fights/wars or negotiating agreements *also about increasing our capacity to deal with conflict-without violence *expanding our “toolbox” of social and political practices ▯ ~if all we have is a hammer everything else just looks like a nail ▯ ~not always win/lose scenario-needs to be mutual benefit VARIATION IN TERMINOLOGY *Conflict Resolution *Conflict Management (more cautious) ▯ ~we may not be able to resolve many conflicts but we can try to keep them within ▯ non-destructive parameters ▯ ~can limit violence *Conflict Transformation ▯ ~transform the character of the conflict by making it less violent while ▯ simultaneously empowering those who are weaker to seek social justice ▯ ~conflict may be a good thing, but it just needs to be waged less violently, in a ▯ way that will correct underlying injustices over the long term without producing a ▯ quick settlement or resolution BASIC CONFLICT RESOLUTION ASSUMPTIONS *Focusing on relationships can produce new insight into sources and dynamics of conflict ▯ -institutions, structures, and the characteristics of individuals still matter ▯ ▯ ~Power Politics Paradigm-more on presumed innate characteristics of ▯ ▯ individuals, or of states as actors ▯ ▯ ~World Order Paradigm-more on institutions, structures, about the way the ▯ ▯ world is organized ▯ ▯ ~Conflict Resolution Paradigm-that’s all important but we have to look at ▯ ▯ the quality of the way different actors are relating to each other-trust/ ▯ ▯ distrust, attitudes towards one another, the history of the relationship, - But human interactions are dynamic and involve “the whole human being” (intellect + emotion) ▯ ▯ ~conflict between individuals-don’t just focus on who is virtuous and who ▯ ▯ is not virtuous-need to look at the history of their relationship, their ▯ ▯ interactions ▯ ▯ ~the same between states *Attitudes, perceptions, and behaviours that fuel destructive conflicts can be changed ▯ ▯ ~are transformable if we know the right process ▯ -improved methods, and processes for handling conflict can produce better (less ▯ destructive, more productive) outcomes ▯ ▯ ~affirmation...people can change ▯ ▯ ~when conflict causes confusion, we can work it out ▯ -effective communication and problem solving are essential of we are to benefit ▯ from conflict rather than suffer from it ▯ ▯ ~conflict is potentially positive, but there is a need to establish that ▯ ▯ connection 7b Sources of Social Conflict *SLIDE CONFLICT *Perceived incompatibility of actions or goals ▯ ~hockey fight conflict-they both can’t win, one may have broken the rules ▯ ~conflict over how one should behave ▯ ~disagreement over the rules of the game can be as destructive as rivalry implicit ▯ in the game itself *What are some of the major sources of conflict in our world? LENSES FOR STUDYING CONFLICT *Psychological ▯ ~personalities and perceptions *Political ▯ ~factions struggling for power, seeking to pursue their objectives, roles of ▯ institutions and interests *Economic ▯ ~how competition for material things drives conflict-money, trade, land, ▯ resources, profit, predation, exploitation *Social (status) (Sociology) ▯ ~social status, ranking of groups, scarcity of high rank vs lower rank, feelings of ▯ social solidarity, group loyalty, *Cultural (anthropology) ▯ ~culture, value differences, identity, us and them, ~conflict resolution-inter-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary ~bring different insights together ~sometimes eclectic sometimes more integrated KEASHLY & WARTERS: FOUR PERSPECTIVES ON THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT (text pp 36-43) *Individual characteristics perspective (p37) ▯ -instinct, personality traits, learned responses ▯ ▯ ~ innate or learned (from earlier lectures) *Social structural perspective (p38) ▯ -unequal access to resources (class, gender, race) ▯ ▯ ~more in World Order Paradigm *Social process perspective* (p39) ▯ -social interactions of individuals/groups (perceptions, interpretations, attitudes, ▯ behaviours, communications) ▯ ▯ ~relationships and the the perceptions/interpretations linked to these ▯ ▯ ~important in the Conflict Resolution Paradigm ▯ ▯ ~one of the main areas of development in the Conflict Resolution ▯ ▯ Paradigm ▯ ▯ ~more significant than the reading states *Formal perspective (p41) ▯ -game theory (rational actors in situations with incentives for conflict/cooperation) ▯ ▯ Prisoner’s Dilemma Payoff COOPERATE DEFECT Matrix COOPERATE 3, 3 0, 5 DEFECT 5, 0 1, 1 ▯ ▯ “AGGRESSOR-DEFENDER” MODELS OF CONFLICT -perceived divergence of interest (someone decides they are going to force a solution) ▯ Aggressor’s behaviour Defender’s behaviour ~has some resemblance to real world processes, we can think of a time when this really happened ~critique-life is usually more complicated , too simplistic, too one sided ~pro-simple “CONFLICT SPIRAL” MODELS OF CONFLICT -perceived divergence of interest ▯ Heavy tactics used by Party A Changes in Party B Changes in Party A ▯ ▯ Heavy tactics used by Party B ~more influential ~more recognition and respect ~changes in Party B-defensiveness- may also seek punitive responses, psychological changes ~blame, anger, arousal ~may be a social change-change in organization ie-Nation-mobilization for war, change in leadership, shift in identity, ~changes in Party A-reinforcement, psychological changes, social changes, social organization changes, ~process continues ~even in an asymmetrical situation where we think we are contributing less than the other we can still try to identify ways in which our actions feed into the spiral-there is something we can take responsibility for in the search for transformation of the situation ~actions on both sides that reinforce certain responses on the other and there is a tendency to entrap ourselves mutually in conflict unless we can think our way out of the spiral 7c Analyzing Macro-Level Cases ▯ 7c1 Poverty and Armed Conflict POVERTY AND ARMED CONFLICT: STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITIES *slide* map of conflict ~a disproportionate number of armed conflicts in the world are in: ▯ ~ poorer countries ▯ ~where there is an intersection of risk factors ▯ ~there is a smaller part of the economic pie to divide ▯ ~stakes of competition for resources are higher ▯ ~country may rely on certain commodities that can be captured or looted or ▯ controlled ▯ ~central government may have less legitimacy and efficiency or effective ▯ sovereignty ▯ ~lack of a strong national identity ▯ ~more vulnerable to external interventions ▯ ~armed conflict harms the economic well being of most players-economic ▯ opportunities for a small minority-gun runners, access to resources that can be ▯ controlled NEPAL ~most beautiful country AND the poorest ~north of India and south of Tibet ~per capita income $265/year (2004) ~80% involved in agriculture ~high degree of economic inequality ~concentrated land ownership ~wealth distribution falls along caste lines along with land ownership ~FUNK observations: ▯ ~malnutrition for some children (not all), subsist on less between growing ▯ seasons, high rate of indebtedness (cyclical) ~1996 civil war started-12000+ deaths, 100000+ internally displaced, ~was struggling to establish a constitutional monarchy (democratic process)...coup from the palace-now at an impasse ~great dal of scarcity, developmental inequality-conditions ripe for a civil war SIERRA LEONE ~west Africa ~founded by free slaves-capitol Freetown 1791 ~civil war 1991-1999 ~not only struggle for power but also wealth available from resources-DIAMONDS ~complex conflict ~we know about it because of the atrocities-instilling fear ~50000+died ~2000000 (1/3 of population) internally displaced ~under control by regional & international peacekeeping forces ~gave term ‘blood diamonds’ ▯ 7c2 Collective Identity and Nationalism ~macro level conflicts ~what it means to be part of a group-first person plural ‘we’ ~most conflicts are within states and about states-do we want to be members in this ▯ state? What group should be ruling the state? Which group has power? *Primordialism-identity is static, deeply rooted, independent of relationships ▯ ~enduring across time, timeless, ▯ ~something essential and consistent about ethnic, national , religious, identities ▯ ~identities are not subject to change ▯ ~increasing criticism *Constructivism-identities change over time in response to historical experiences, ▯ relationships with other groups, and new ideas ▯ ~self/other relationships ▯ ~Canada can be used as an example ie multicultural *Instrumentalism-identities are manipulated to advance political and economic interests *slide* ▯ ~ manipulation of ethnic identity in many contemporary conflict scenarios is done ▯ by people who are trying to increase their own share of the pie (leaders or ▯ represent groups by interest) ▯ ~promoting self-determination by different groups in Europe, or other parts of the ▯ world, in a way that some might read that and say that advanced a certain ▯ strategic interest vis-a-vis other great powers at the time ▯ ~after WWII the idea of the West as a political entity suddenly became a major ▯ factor in international political discourse-the West wasn’t that big before-now you ▯ have West vs East? Soviet Union (& allies) trying to make an identity for strategic ▯ reasons ~complexity, change, interests GREECE, TURKEY, AND IMIA/KARDAK ~long history of conflict ~still often experience tensions over control of islands and seaways, air space ~didn’t trust one another their identities were opposed to one another ~1996-tensions over ‘rocks’-rocky islands in the Agean sea-Greeks=Imia & Turkey=Kardak and each state claimed sovereign rights ~close to war-NATO intervened and the conflict simmered down ~1999 earthquake in Turkey-Greeks sent a relief team, then earthquake in Athens-Turks sent in a relief team now sympathy/empathy? ~how different or similar are we to others? ▯ 7c3 Refugees and Displaced people CYPRUS ~4/5 Greek, 1/5 Turkish ~stand off between resident Greeks and Turks for several decades ~was under British rule late 19th century-1960 ~then Greeks & Turks couldn’t agree how to share power ~Greek coup on 1974 ~Turkey launched a military operation with the stated purpose of protecting Turkish Cypriots from ‘ethnic cleansing’ ~island partitioned with military force on each side ~still unresolved ~refugee flows both directions ~Turkish ‘peace operation’/Greek ‘invasion’ ▯ 7c4 Escalation as a Consequence of Unresolved Tensions and Unmet s d e e ▯ N *slide* ~can’t understand contemporary conflict if you don’t understand that there are deep underlying needs that if unmet can lead to violence and if met can lead to security ~need to try to find out the fundamental needs of different groups ~big one is Identity-the need to preserve ones own ethnic, cultural, linguistic identity THE KURDS *slide* ~they are a stateless people ~don’t know how many there are~25000000-largest group of stateless people ~Kurds have strong sense of identity-not reflected in a state & because the states they’re in don’t recognize their nationalism and have often been antagonistic to it trying to impose another language, another culture ~ unrest in many countries with Kurds living there ~basic need for identity and if not addressed then there will be conflict ~own enemy in internal divisiveness-will bond over common culture ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONF
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