Class Notes (838,379)
Canada (510,867)
PACS 201 (55)
Lecture 4

Lecture 4- World Order Perspective.pdf

8 Pages
195 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Peace and Conflict Studies
Course
PACS 201
Professor
Nathan Funk
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture  4-­‐  The  World  Order  Paradigm   4  a)  Introduction   Beyond  Power  Politics?   • Traditional  view  of  conflict  and  violence:  “want  peace  have  to  prepare  for   peace”-­‐  “Si  Vis  Pacem,  Para  Pacem”   Critique  of  Power  Politics:   • The  grim  fact…is  that  we  prepare  for  war  like  precarious  giants  and  for  peace   like  retarded  pygmies.”    -­‐  Lester  B.  Pearson   • Misdiagnosis  of  the  roots  of  conflict,  violence  and  peace   • Problematic  prescriptions  for  peace  (security  competition,  “invisible  hand”)-­‐   perfect  competition-­‐  makes  everything  work.  Sometimes  invisible  hand  is   messy  and  not  always  balance  of  power  present.  Underlying  issues  need  to   be  addressed  so  we  can  get  along  with  different  powers   • Potentially  damaging  perspective-­‐  not  letting  us  live  to  full  global  potential   Explanations  of  Conflict  and  Violence:   1. Narrow  or  short-­‐sighted  pursuit  of  interests  by  states  and  their  leaders   2. Unregulated  security  competition-­‐  absorbs  valuable  resources  and  prevents   us  from  sharing  problems  cooperatively   3. Reliance  on  threats  and  self-­‐help  rather  than  rules  and  institutions   exacerbates  conflict   4. Poor  countries  face  major  disadvantages  in  global  trade  and  financial   relations  (“north”  >  “south”)-­‐  we  don’t  have  a  world  government  but  there  is   institutional  global  organizations  and  need  to  make  sure  they  are  equitable   5. Underprovision  of  public  goods  (economic  globalization  without  effective   global  governance)-­‐  need  to  work  on  providing  public  goods  at  an   international  level-­‐  eg.  Of  Canadian  national  public  good  is  health  care  and   literacy,  infrastructure,  law  &  order.  Global  public  good-­‐  Human  Rights,     How  can  we  prepare  for  peace?   • “si  vis  pacem,  para  pacem”   • Peace  is  more  than  the  absence  of  war-­‐  also  a  presence  of  things  that  make   for  a  decent  existence-­‐  social  well-­‐being  etc.   • Requires  broad-­‐based  consensus-­‐  building  and  institutionalized  cooperation-­‐   challenge  is  what  if  we  don’t  have  consensus  and  how  do  we  build  it?   • Progress  is  possible-­‐  better  be  because  interdependence  is  defining  reality  of   international  politics-­‐  one  nations  legitimate  goals  is  best  realized  through   cooperation  with  other  nations       Human  Global  Governance   • How  might  improved  national  and  international  governance  reduce  violence   and  war?   o Restraining  direct  violence  (order)   o Organizing  collaborative  efforts  to  address  root  causes  of   conflict/violence,  including  structural  violence  (global  social  justice)-­‐   not  just  –ve  and  +ve  peace  but  structural  peace.  There  are  connections   between  peace  and  health-­‐  take  shots  to  make  us  immune  in  the   future,  nutrition-­‐  organized  socially  to  make  sure  spreading  of  germs   is  kept  to  minimum-­‐  what  can  we  do  beyond  preventing  attack,  how   can  we  be  proactive  in  social  justice,  environmental  etc   4b)  Comparing  Key  Premises   4b1)  Sufficiency  (mismanaged)   Sufficiency  (with  unsustainable  and  inequitable  practices)-­‐  vs  Power  Politics-­‐   scarcity  and  competition   • Scarcity  not  so  much  a  natural  condition  as  a  social  and  political  condition   that  must  be  explained-­‐  doesn’t  mean  people  don’t  want  more  then  they  have   but  f  its  destructive  then  means  there  must  be  something  wrong  with  the   systems   • People  are  capable  of  behaving  cooperatively,  especially  if  there  is  a  benign   structural  framework-­‐  humans  are  capable  of  acting  well  if  you  give  them   structure,  they  just  need  peace  order  and  good  governance   Structural  Violence:   • …but  the  way  the  world  is  organized  today  is  experienced  y  many  people  as   unjust-­‐  not  peaceful-­‐  we  are  part  of  the  top  elite  because  we  have   opportunity  to  go  to  college  why  plausible?  We  have  clean  drinking  water   etc.  disparity  can  cause  or  be  source  of  conflict   • Problem  of  structural  violence:  “  Harm,  such  as  poverty,  disease,  and   oppression,  that  is  not  the  direct  result  of  anyone’s  intentional  actions,  but  of   institutional  practices.”  (Conrad  Brunk;  see  also  F&  S,  p.22)   Unequal  Distribution  of  Wealth  and  Opportunity   • We  are  witnessing  both  an  overall  increase  in  wealth  and  an  increasing  gap   between  rich  and  poor  (Klare,  2000)-­‐  these  schisms  cause  conflict  and   tension  in  the  world   • “schisms”  in  our  world  create  bases  for  conflict   • Government  services  do  well  at  serving  people  who  are  doing  well  eg.  Us  -­‐ and  average  Canadian.  The  world  contains  enough  resources       Deprivation:   • Relative  deprivation:  “  individuals  or  groups  subjectively  perceive   themselves  as  unfairly  disadvantaged  (compared  to)  others  perceived  as   having  similar  attributes  and  deserving  similar  rewards”  (Jock  Young,   emphasis  added)-­‐  focus  on  discontent,  potential  mobilization-­‐  feeling  of   humiliation  that  help  is  close  to  you  but  cant  get  to  it-­‐  clear  immediate  cause   of  conflict   • Absolute  derivation:  Inability  to  access  basic  necessities  of  life,  resulting  in   impairment  of  physical  health-­‐  absolute  poverty-­‐  fundamental  weakness  in   our  social  systems,  deficits  that  are  striking  in  the  world  where  day  to  day  life   is  preoccupied  with  trying  to  survive-­‐  why  should  my  location  of  birth  shape   my  destiny?   Erosion  of  Subsistence  Cultures:   • Cultural  perspective  on  economic  activity:   o Poverty  is  not  simply  a  “lack  of  money”-­‐  no  cash  on  hand   o Disruption  of  past  modes  of  subsistence-­‐  rapid  social  change.    Crafts   and  ways  of  making  money  passed  on  from  generation  to  generation   Pressures  on  the  Environment:   • Human  numbers  and  activities  put  pressures  on  ecological  support  systems-­‐   population  grows  exponentially  and  food  supply  grows  arithmetically  then   we  are  headed  into  a  train  wreck   • How  right/wrong  was  Thomas  Malthus  (1766-­‐1834)?  He  was  not  completely   right-­‐  population  is  growing  because  of  decreased  infant  mortality;  kids  are   economic  assets,  women  status  increases  when  children  increases.     Environmental  Mismanagement:   • Political  explanations  of  scarcity-­‐based  conflict-­‐  if  farms  are  breaking  down   and  we  can’t  sustain  our  selves  we  should  look  at  policies  and  politics   • Misgovernance   Resource  Capture:   • From  Thomas  Mathus  to  Thomas  Homer-­‐Dixon   • Many  political  and  economic  environments  favor  the  concentration  of   resources  in  fewer  and  fewer  hands-­‐  specific  groups  in  society  to  control  the   resources   Process  of  Marginalization:   • Unequal  access  to  resources   Exacerbation  of  ethnic,  Religious  and  Ideological  Cleavages:   • Enter  the  conflict  zone  Take  a  stand  the  blame  game  Actions  speak   louder  than  words  Attack  and  counter  attack  The  explosion  Picking  up   the  process   4b2)  Multiple  Actors   • International  organizations,  states,  transnational  corporations,  NGOs,  Ethnic   groups,  Transnational  Social  Movements,  Global  Civil  Society,  insurgent,   criminal  and  terrorist  groups   • International  Regimes:  sets  of  rules,  norms  and  procedures  for  governing  a   particular  cluster  of  issues  in  global  politics-­‐  international  trade  agreements,   NAFTA,  formal  international  organizations,  United  Nations,  NATO,  Kyoto   Accord   • International  Organizations:  formal  institutions  that  exist  to  expedite   cooperation   • Transnational  Social  Movement:  informal  activist  networks  that  transcend   national  boundaries-­‐  human  rights  advocates,  not  consciously  co
More Less

Related notes for PACS 201

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit