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Lecture 4

Lecture 4- World Order Perspective.pdf

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Peace and Conflict Studies
PACS 201
Nathan Funk

Lecture  4-­‐  The  World  Order  Paradigm   4  a)  Introduction   Beyond  Power  Politics?   • Traditional  view  of  conflict  and  violence:  “want  peace  have  to  prepare  for   peace”-­‐  “Si  Vis  Pacem,  Para  Pacem”   Critique  of  Power  Politics:   • The  grim  fact…is  that  we  prepare  for  war  like  precarious  giants  and  for  peace   like  retarded  pygmies.”    -­‐  Lester  B.  Pearson   • Misdiagnosis  of  the  roots  of  conflict,  violence  and  peace   • Problematic  prescriptions  for  peace  (security  competition,  “invisible  hand”)-­‐   perfect  competition-­‐  makes  everything  work.  Sometimes  invisible  hand  is   messy  and  not  always  balance  of  power  present.  Underlying  issues  need  to   be  addressed  so  we  can  get  along  with  different  powers   • Potentially  damaging  perspective-­‐  not  letting  us  live  to  full  global  potential   Explanations  of  Conflict  and  Violence:   1. Narrow  or  short-­‐sighted  pursuit  of  interests  by  states  and  their  leaders   2. Unregulated  security  competition-­‐  absorbs  valuable  resources  and  prevents   us  from  sharing  problems  cooperatively   3. Reliance  on  threats  and  self-­‐help  rather  than  rules  and  institutions   exacerbates  conflict   4. Poor  countries  face  major  disadvantages  in  global  trade  and  financial   relations  (“north”  >  “south”)-­‐  we  don’t  have  a  world  government  but  there  is   institutional  global  organizations  and  need  to  make  sure  they  are  equitable   5. Underprovision  of  public  goods  (economic  globalization  without  effective   global  governance)-­‐  need  to  work  on  providing  public  goods  at  an   international  level-­‐  eg.  Of  Canadian  national  public  good  is  health  care  and   literacy,  infrastructure,  law  &  order.  Global  public  good-­‐  Human  Rights,     How  can  we  prepare  for  peace?   • “si  vis  pacem,  para  pacem”   • Peace  is  more  than  the  absence  of  war-­‐  also  a  presence  of  things  that  make   for  a  decent  existence-­‐  social  well-­‐being  etc.   • Requires  broad-­‐based  consensus-­‐  building  and  institutionalized  cooperation-­‐   challenge  is  what  if  we  don’t  have  consensus  and  how  do  we  build  it?   • Progress  is  possible-­‐  better  be  because  interdependence  is  defining  reality  of   international  politics-­‐  one  nations  legitimate  goals  is  best  realized  through   cooperation  with  other  nations       Human  Global  Governance   • How  might  improved  national  and  international  governance  reduce  violence   and  war?   o Restraining  direct  violence  (order)   o Organizing  collaborative  efforts  to  address  root  causes  of   conflict/violence,  including  structural  violence  (global  social  justice)-­‐   not  just  –ve  and  +ve  peace  but  structural  peace.  There  are  connections   between  peace  and  health-­‐  take  shots  to  make  us  immune  in  the   future,  nutrition-­‐  organized  socially  to  make  sure  spreading  of  germs   is  kept  to  minimum-­‐  what  can  we  do  beyond  preventing  attack,  how   can  we  be  proactive  in  social  justice,  environmental  etc   4b)  Comparing  Key  Premises   4b1)  Sufficiency  (mismanaged)   Sufficiency  (with  unsustainable  and  inequitable  practices)-­‐  vs  Power  Politics-­‐   scarcity  and  competition   • Scarcity  not  so  much  a  natural  condition  as  a  social  and  political  condition   that  must  be  explained-­‐  doesn’t  mean  people  don’t  want  more  then  they  have   but  f  its  destructive  then  means  there  must  be  something  wrong  with  the   systems   • People  are  capable  of  behaving  cooperatively,  especially  if  there  is  a  benign   structural  framework-­‐  humans  are  capable  of  acting  well  if  you  give  them   structure,  they  just  need  peace  order  and  good  governance   Structural  Violence:   • …but  the  way  the  world  is  organized  today  is  experienced  y  many  people  as   unjust-­‐  not  peaceful-­‐  we  are  part  of  the  top  elite  because  we  have   opportunity  to  go  to  college  why  plausible?  We  have  clean  drinking  water   etc.  disparity  can  cause  or  be  source  of  conflict   • Problem  of  structural  violence:  “  Harm,  such  as  poverty,  disease,  and   oppression,  that  is  not  the  direct  result  of  anyone’s  intentional  actions,  but  of   institutional  practices.”  (Conrad  Brunk;  see  also  F&  S,  p.22)   Unequal  Distribution  of  Wealth  and  Opportunity   • We  are  witnessing  both  an  overall  increase  in  wealth  and  an  increasing  gap   between  rich  and  poor  (Klare,  2000)-­‐  these  schisms  cause  conflict  and   tension  in  the  world   • “schisms”  in  our  world  create  bases  for  conflict   • Government  services  do  well  at  serving  people  who  are  doing  well  eg.  Us  -­‐ and  average  Canadian.  The  world  contains  enough  resources       Deprivation:   • Relative  deprivation:  “  individuals  or  groups  subjectively  perceive   themselves  as  unfairly  disadvantaged  (compared  to)  others  perceived  as   having  similar  attributes  and  deserving  similar  rewards”  (Jock  Young,   emphasis  added)-­‐  focus  on  discontent,  potential  mobilization-­‐  feeling  of   humiliation  that  help  is  close  to  you  but  cant  get  to  it-­‐  clear  immediate  cause   of  conflict   • Absolute  derivation:  Inability  to  access  basic  necessities  of  life,  resulting  in   impairment  of  physical  health-­‐  absolute  poverty-­‐  fundamental  weakness  in   our  social  systems,  deficits  that  are  striking  in  the  world  where  day  to  day  life   is  preoccupied  with  trying  to  survive-­‐  why  should  my  location  of  birth  shape   my  destiny?   Erosion  of  Subsistence  Cultures:   • Cultural  perspective  on  economic  activity:   o Poverty  is  not  simply  a  “lack  of  money”-­‐  no  cash  on  hand   o Disruption  of  past  modes  of  subsistence-­‐  rapid  social  change.    Crafts   and  ways  of  making  money  passed  on  from  generation  to  generation   Pressures  on  the  Environment:   • Human  numbers  and  activities  put  pressures  on  ecological  support  systems-­‐   population  grows  exponentially  and  food  supply  grows  arithmetically  then   we  are  headed  into  a  train  wreck   • How  right/wrong  was  Thomas  Malthus  (1766-­‐1834)?  He  was  not  completely   right-­‐  population  is  growing  because  of  decreased  infant  mortality;  kids  are   economic  assets,  women  status  increases  when  children  increases.     Environmental  Mismanagement:   • Political  explanations  of  scarcity-­‐based  conflict-­‐  if  farms  are  breaking  down   and  we  can’t  sustain  our  selves  we  should  look  at  policies  and  politics   • Misgovernance   Resource  Capture:   • From  Thomas  Mathus  to  Thomas  Homer-­‐Dixon   • Many  political  and  economic  environments  favor  the  concentration  of   resources  in  fewer  and  fewer  hands-­‐  specific  groups  in  society  to  control  the   resources   Process  of  Marginalization:   • Unequal  access  to  resources   Exacerbation  of  ethnic,  Religious  and  Ideological  Cleavages:   • Enter  the  conflict  zone  Take  a  stand  the  blame  game  Actions  speak   louder  than  words  Attack  and  counter  attack  The  explosion  Picking  up   the  process   4b2)  Multiple  Actors   • International  organizations,  states,  transnational  corporations,  NGOs,  Ethnic   groups,  Transnational  Social  Movements,  Global  Civil  Society,  insurgent,   criminal  and  terrorist  groups   • International  Regimes:  sets  of  rules,  norms  and  procedures  for  governing  a   particular  cluster  of  issues  in  global  politics-­‐  international  trade  agreements,   NAFTA,  formal  international  organizations,  United  Nations,  NATO,  Kyoto   Accord   • International  Organizations:  formal  institutions  that  exist  to  expedite   cooperation   • Transnational  Social  Movement:  informal  activist  networks  that  transcend   national  boundaries-­‐  human  rights  advocates,  not  consciously  co
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