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Lecture 7

Lecture 7- Conflict Resolution Paradigm.pdf

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University of Waterloo
Peace and Conflict Studies
PACS 201
Nathan Funk

Lecture  7  Conflict  Resolution  Paradigm   7a)  Introduction  to  the  Conflict  Resolution  Paradigm   • “If  we  want  to  prevent  violence  and  create  conditions  favorable  for  peace,   what  should  we  do?”   o Power  Politics  Paradigm:  Arm  yourself  we  are  competitive  and   violence  is  natural   o World  Order:  Bolster  world  Governance  and  institutionalizing   cooperation   o Conflict  Resolution:  conflict  is  inevitable  but  violence  doesn’t  have  to   exist  and  conflict  brings  opportunity.  Establish  communication,  work   on  relationship   Conflict  Resolution:   • Not  just  about  ending  fights/wars  or  negotiating  agreements   • Also  about  increasing  our  capacity  to  deal  with  conflict-­‐without  violence   • Expanding  our  “toolbox”  of  social  and  political  practices   • If  all  we  have  is  a  hammer  then  all  we  see  is  a  nail   Variation  in  Terminology   • Original  terminology-­‐  conflict  resolution   • Conscious  terminology-­‐  conflict  management   • Conflict  transformation-­‐  seen  as  less  violent   Basic  Conflict  Resolution  Assumptions   • Focusing  on  relationships  can  produce  new  insight  into  sources  and   dynamics  of  conflict   o Institutions,  structures,  and  the  characteristics  of  individuals  still   matter-­‐  this  is  all  important  but  have  to  look  at  the  attitudes  of   components  and  history  of  the  relationship   o But  human  interactions  are  dynamic,  and  involve  “the  whole  human   being  (intellect  +  emotion)-­‐  conflict  between  individuals  we  look  at   the  history  of  the  relationship  etc   • Attitudes,  perceptions  and  behaviors  that  fuel  destructive  conflicts  can  be   changed-­‐  behaviors  can  be  transformed  if  we  know  the  right  approach   o Improved  methods  and  processes  for  handling  conflict  can  produce   better  (less  destructive,  more  productive)  outcomes   o Effective  communication  and  problem  solving  are  essential  if  we  are  to   benefit  from  conflict  rather  than  suffer  from  it         7b)  Sources  of  Social  Conflict   • Conflict  analysis  separates  surface  level  issues  from  deep  rooted  issues  that   we  don’t  always  talk  about-­‐  therefore  dealing  with  obvious  and  not  obvious   underlying  issues   • The  What:  Issue   • The  Why:  Underlying  risk  and  protective  factors   Conflict:   • Perceived  incompatibility  of  actions  or  goals-­‐  disagreement  of  rules  of  the   game   Lenses  for  Studying  Conflict:   • Psychology-­‐  personality  and  perceptions   • Political-­‐  passion  struggle  for  power   • Economic-­‐  competition  for  material  things  drives  conflict   • Social  (status)-­‐  ranking  of  groups,  scarcity  of  high  ranking  positions,  group   loyalty   • Cultural-­‐  value  differences   Keashly  &  Warters;  Four  Perspectives  on  the  Nature  and  the  Causes  of  conflict:   • Individual  characteristics  perspective   o Instinct,  personality  traits,  learned  responses-­‐  debate  of  human   aggression   • Social  structural  perspective   o Unequal  access  to  resources  (class,  gender,  race)-­‐  world  order   paradigm   • Social  process  perspective*   o Social  interactions  of  individual/groups  (perceptions,  interpretations,   attitudes,  behaviors,  communications)-­‐  effectiveness  or   ineffectiveness  of  communications-­‐  very  significant  for  understanding   conflict  resolution  approach   • Formal  perspective   o Game  theory  (rational  actors  in  situations  with  incentives  for   conflict/cooperation)-­‐  mathematical  approach   “Aggressor-­‐Defender”  Models  of  Conflict:   • In  media  we  hear  of  clear  defender  and  clear  aggressor.  Aggressor  is  usually   the  other  side   • Perceived  divergence  of  interest-­‐  Aggressor’s  behavior    Defender’s   behavior   • Most  conflicts  in  world  are  more  complicated  then  this.  This  model  is  too   simplistic  and  places  too  much  innocence  in  ones  victimization   “Conflict  Spiral”  Models  of  Conflict:   • Perceived  divergence  of  interest-­‐  Heavy  tactics  used  by  Party  A  Changes  in   Party  B  (defensiveness  and  psychological  changes  like  blame,  anger.  Also   change  in  social  order-­‐change  in  leadership  etc)  Heavy  tactics  used  by   Party  B  Changes  in  Party  A  Heavy  tactics  used  by  Party  A  etc.   • Even  if  we  feel  less  responsible  then  the  other  Party  at  least  this  can  show  us   and  help  us  identify  our  part  in  the  conflict  and  which  actions  on  both  sides   reinforced  the  other.  Challenge  is  to  think  our  way  out  of  the  spiral.   7c)  Analyzing  Macro-­Level  Cases   Poverty  and  Armed  Conflict:  Structural  Vulnerabilities   Case  studies:  Nepal,  Sierra  Leone   7c2)  Collectivism  and  Nationalism   • Most  conflicts  in  the  world  today  are  within  states   • Primordialism-­‐  identity  is  static,  deeply  rooted;  independent  of   relationships-­‐  identity  is  not  subject  to  change  eg.  Conflict  in  the  middle  east   has  existed  for  ages  because  of  the  religion  has  always  been  there,  but  what  it   means  to  be  Christian  or  Jewish  back  then  doesn’t  mean  the  same  thing  it   does  today   • Constructivism-­‐  identities  change  over  time  in  response  to  historical   experiences,  relationships  with  other  groups  and  new  ideas-­‐  Canadian   identity  has  changed  over  time  and  means  different  things  at  different  times.   Basically  we  try  not  to  be  like  the  people  on  the  other  side,  but  of  course  here   are  other  things  like  values  etc.  it’s  dynamic  and  emerging.   • Instrumentalism-­‐  identities  are  manipulated  to  advance  political  and   economic  interests-­‐sensitive  to  power  dynamics.  These  people  may  not   represent  majority  of  people.    Manipulation  of  Ethnic  Identity  done  by  people   who  want  to  increase  piece  of  pie  and  need  to  affiliate  with  more  dominant   groups  etc.-­‐  this  has  become  more  mainstream  because  it  isn’t  as  simplistic.   You  become  aware  of  changes,  interests  and  complexities  and  allows  more   understanding   Greece,  turkey  and  Imia/  Kardak:   7c3)  Refugees  and  Displaced  People   • Being  a  refugee  becomes  part  of  their  identity   Cyprus-­‐  conflict  between  Turkish  in  north  and  Greek  in  south   7c4)  Escalation  as  a  Consequence  of  Unresolved  Tensions  and  Unmet  Needs   • Surface  level   o overt  conflicts-­‐eg.  Physical  violence  based  on  race  or  ethnicity,  racial   slurs,  name  calling     • Below  the  Surface:   o Underlying  conflicts  or  tensions-­‐  eg.  Avoiding  certain  groups,   excluding  certain  groups,  perception  that  treatment  is  unequal  across   groups   o Roots  causes  of  racial  or  ethnic  conflicts  eg.  Segregation,  racism,   socialization,  inequality   • Major  issue  is  preserving  identity   Kurds:     • About  25  million-­‐  large  displaced  group  in  the  world   • After  WWI-­‐  found  no  state   • Preserve  their  identity  even  when  in  different  countries  eg.  Iraq,  Iran  and   Syria   Israeli-­‐Palestinian  Conflict:   • Need  for  security  and  identity   • Tragedy  rather  then  good  vs  bad-­‐  will  find  bad  and  good  on  both  sides   • Need  to  identity  common  human  agendas  to  be  advanced   • Partitions  doesn’t  seem  to  get  a  quick  result   7c5)  “Protracted  Social  Conflicts”  (Edward  Azar)   • Most  conflict  contains:   • Communal  Content  (ethnicity/culture)   • Denial  of  human  needs  (identity,  development,  security,  control)   • Governance  problems  (eg.  Exclusion,  corruption,  discrimination)   • International  Linkages-­‐  external  intervention  by  great  powers  etc.   • This  is  protracted  in  terms  of  time   7d)  Explaining  Conflict  Escalation                   • Simplified  cycle-­‐  what  goes  up,  must  come  down   Procesesses  of  Escalation:   John  Paul  Lederach  on  Social  Transformation  of  Conflict   • Certain  dynamics  that  can  produce  negative  outcomes  in  a  relationship   • The  other  person  starts  to  become  the  problem   • Issue  proliferates  and  becomes  more  general-­‐  you’re  a  horrible  person   because  you  don’t  feed  the  dog,  you  didn’t  take  out  the  garbage-­‐  forget  the   initial  problem  of  you  just  didn’t  come  home  with  groceries   • Communication  deteriorates,  becoming  less  direct  and  accurate   • Triangulation  occurs  as  others  are  drawn  into  the  conflict   • “Reciprocal  causation”:  reacting  to  the  other  side,  “eye  for  eye”   • Hostility  increases   • Polarization,  changes  in  social  organization  occur   Reality  and  Perception:   Parallax:  Where  we  stand  affects  what  we  see   Attitude  and  Bias   • Attribution  bias   • Implication:   o Externalization  of  responsibility   o Justifications  for  “heavy  tactics”   Emotional  Involvement  and  Communication   • Lederach’s  Model-­‐  if  we  are  not  emotionally  involved  at  all  we  ar  likely  to   have  bad  communication  with  the  other  side  if  we  don’t  care  at  all   Psychological  Dynamics:   • Conflict  “residues”-­‐  often  happens  when  there  has  been  a  conflict  in  the  past   and  there  is  residual  resentment   • Enemy  images  and  the  “fear  fa
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