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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 Options for Transforming Conflictual Relationships.pdf

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Department
Peace and Conflict Studies
Course
PACS 201
Professor
Nathan Funk
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture  8  Options  for  Transforming  Conflictual  Relationships   8a)  Culture  and  human  Needs   Digging  Deeper:  The  Search  for  Underlying  Issues  and  Motivations:   Pyramid  Tip:  PositionsInterests  Values  and  Beliefs  Basic  Human  Needs:   Pyramid  bottom   • Separate  Interests  from  positions-­‐  what  people  state  as  their  objective  or   what  they  want  out  of  a  negotiation  isn’t  always  the  same  as  their  real   interests   • People  have  conflicting  values  and  beliefs-­‐  understand  shared  and  differing   value  priorities   • Basic  human  needs-­‐  this  is  where  we  can  all  relate  and  if  they  are  not   respected  then  relationships  can  deteriorate   Human  Needs  Theory:   • Fears:  What  are  the  “nightmares”?  What  is  the  other  side  afraid  of?  –What  is   each  side  afraid  of  losing   • Basic  human  needs:  what  are  the  most  essential  stakes  and  motivations?     o Identity/dignity-­‐  most  civil  wars  are  bout  identity   o Security/control-­‐  if  people  feel  their  security  is  threatened  then  don’t   expect  them  to  react  cooperatively   o Development-­‐  if  we  don’t  feel  like  our  world  is  growing  and  human   deprivation  is  getting  worse   o Meaning-­‐  if  you  have  been  through  violence  it  shakes  up  your  world   and  a  need  to  make  the  world  whole  again   • Needs  of  one  side  can  only  be  fulfilled  of  the  other  sides  needs  are  also   fulfilled  simultaneously-­‐  both  develop  together   • “Emotions  are  extremely  informative;  they  help  disputants  and  mediators   recognize  what  is  important  and  why,  as  well  as  providing  the  motivation   and  energy  to  engage  in  management  efforts.”  (Keashley  &  Warters,  p.60)   8a1)  Humiliation   • “the  enforced  lowering  of  a  person  or  group,  a  process  of  subjugation  that   damages  or  strips  away  their  pride,  honor  or  dignity.”  (Lindner,  quoted  in   Rosenberg)-­‐  we  live  in  a  world  were  it  is  no  longer  excepted  that  people  can   live  as  second  class  but  there  is  a  normal  ideal  of  egalitarianism  or  equality.  If   we  want  to  degrade  a  nation  then  force  them  to  accept  a  policy  that  exploits   them   • Links  to  extreme  nationalism,  terrorism,  etc.?-­‐  Resistance  to  occupation   because  occupation  is  humiliating   • Implications:   o Can  the  strong  avoid  humiliating  their  adversaries?-­‐  greater  dangers   is  the  strong  nations  today    feel  they  have  the  capability  to  create  the   outcomes  they  want  by  themselves  by  imposing  those  outcomes   which  can  lead  to  conflict  and  humiliating  situations   o Can  this  political  emotion  be  transformed  (the  “Nelson  Mandela   option”)?   8a2)  Ways  of  Relating  and  Communicating   8b)  Reframing   • Framing:  “the  way  in  which  a  party  describes  or  defines  a  conflict”   • Reframing:  “the  process  of  changing  the  way  a  thought  is  presented  so  that  it   maintains  its  fundamental  meaning  but  is  more  likely  to  support  resolution   efforts”-­‐  an  effort  to  package  what  we  think  is  important  in  the  conflict.   Changing  the  wording  etc.   • Our  mind  is  always  trying  to  frame  situations  when  there  are  other  ways  of   going  about  it   Reframing  Exercise   • You  are  the  mediator.  Can  you  help  Party  A  reframe  his/her  comments   about/to  Party  B?   • 1.  “all  I  ever  hear  from  you  are  demands  and  ultimatums!  I  want  this!  Give  me   That!”-­‐  you  feel  like  there  is  so  much  demand  on  you..   Improving  Communication:   • Overcoming  destructive  or  unhelpful  patters  (defensiveness,  accusations)   • Assisting  efforts  to  arrive  at  mutual  understanding  by  cultivating  empathy   and/or  analytical  problem  solving   • “Do  not  assume  that  what  you  meant  by  a  message-­‐verbal  or  non-­‐verbal-­‐  is   what  representatives  of  the  other  side  will  understand  by  it.”  (Reychler   p.458)   Dialogue  as  a  Context  for  Transformation:   • Distinction  between  dialogue  and  debate   • Dialogue  important  when  trying  to  uncover  similarities  and  practicing  active   listening   • Active  listening  (Reychler,  p.456)-­‐  involves  reflective  listening  when  we  her   what  someone  says  and  then  repeating  to  them  hat  they  said  and   communicate  to  this  person  that  we  are  trying  to  u
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