February 25, 2013 - Lecture
Putting it all Together - The Opportunity of Restorative Justice
Key Principles of Restorative Justice (RJ)
- crime hurts people and relationship
- harms create needs and obligations
- those most affected should be involved in working towards making things as right as possible
Every person counts
everyone needs to be respected, heard, and understood
everyone deserves to be treated justly
everyone is capable of change and healing if his or her needs are met
Justice requires accountability that changes and heals people and relationship
people create justice together
A Nested Model of Impact
See model from slides..
There is a ripple that happens out from the individual and out to others: Individual - Interpersonal
- Community - Society
Physical, emotional, spiritual, and cognitive needs
Howard Zehr suggests a number of human needs that he says is within us all. He looks out at how
crime and trauma affect those needs. The three central needs are Identity, Relationships, and
Clark says that all human beings need autonomy, bonding, and meaning (meaning being the most
Crime is often experienced as traumatic. Zehr:
It is disempowerment of autonomy, disconnections from the bonding (includes safety), and
disorder of meaning.
Impacts of Victimization:
- from autonomy to loss of control and fear
- from connection to isolation, stigmatization, and shame
- from meaning to disorder and confusion
- restitution Offenders themes
Impacts of Offending
- damage to victim
- damage to self (isolation, stigmatization, and shame)
- damage to family
- damage to community
- accountable to those harmed
... what is accountability?
- Opportunity for personal transformation
- Incapacitation (we need to lock some people up because they are not safe).
Why do people act violently?
- trying to undo some measure of disrespect
- trying to save face
- they feel threatened
- channel anger - outlet
- it is learned behaviour (they have learned that violence is a way to communicate)
- lack of understanding
- perceived limited actions
- mental health
- to gain power or control (over a situation)
- perpetrators are usually male. Most of the victims of violence are men, although there are women
and children as well. Why? It is seen as masculine, gender roles. It's okay for men to feel anger but
not to demonstrate sadness, compassion, etc. (in the world of theory, in terms of stereotypes).
- Rage and Shame! Many male perpetrators have been neglected, abused, bullied or had some sort
of traumatic experience. Combine this with a society that teaches men they are to be powerful and
express anger only; this basically leads to the violence.
- they don't know how to ask for help.
What is violence in comparison to conflict? Conflict is interactive, between two or more
disputants that are both/all responsible. Violence lacks interactivity, the violent act is committed
unilaterally by one person against the will and well-being of another.
What is violence? Hurt/pain. Lack of consent. Intent.
Ex: is pro-wresting violence? in a sense no because they are both contributing
Three elements of Violence:
- Impact: Violation/in