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Lecture 16

PHIL 110B Lecture 16: Week 2 - PHIL 110B

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University of Waterloo
Patricia Marino

PHIL 110B – Week 2 Kantian Philosophy  Opposite of utilitarianism o Think about if actions show respect for the autonomy of each individual person o You look at what kind of action it is, not how it affects everyone as a group but how it impacts each individual person o Rational nature was valuable in people, this must be respected o When you fail to respect this, you use them as a mere means (lying, deception) o You deprive them of the ability to decide if they want to participate in the action you are promoting o It is not enough to just not do negative things, you must also help others to meet their needs and achieve their ends (goals) o Utilitarianism is mostly based on benevolence o Kantian Theory is based on both, but mostly on justice o Action affecting each person  Formula of the End in Itself o Means – method you use to achieve something o Mere means – using them just to get something o Respect rational nature, any being that has the ability to make decisions  Rationality – the rational capacity that people can decide what it right to do o Maxims – Why you are doing what you are doing o Underlying principle, guides other superficial ideas and actions o Impossible for us to act on impulse, you must create a maxim  Deception and Coercion o False Promise – they cannot consent to the action because they are being manipulated and they do not have the information for what you are truly going to do o Blackmail  Use others as an ‘ends in themselves’ o Not use them as mere means o Other people have own ends and goals they want o To use others as ‘ends in themselves’, you must help others achieve their and goals o Equality means that if you value your own ends, you must value the ends of others o You must use judgement to see who you can help  Kantian vs. Utilitarian o Kantian – Reason/maxim for action (if your aim does not respect rational nature, outcome does not matter) o Utilitarian – Consequences of actions (reason why doesn’t matter as long as the
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