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PHIL 215
Brian Orend

Note! The lectures link page has migrated to: lecture-notes-uwaterloo-fall-2012-professor-brian-orend/ PHIL 215 Lecture #10 Today: 1. Remaining Schedule: TODAY: see below NEXT WEEK: International Business Issue & Globalization LAST CLASS: Corporate Social Responsibility 2. Today: A. Finish Advertising B. Sales: Bribery & Gift-Giving C. Equity / Diversity Issues D. Ethic of Investing A. Nestle Baby Formula Scandal 1970-90 (Continuing) 70% of world’s baby formula $12 Billion / year Fraud in the global south. Issues: 1. Deception / Fraud: - Medical Testimony / Imagery: Paying actors to say they are doctors. - Medical Claims: “Baby Formula is better than breastmilk” - FALSE!!! Main ingredient in baby formula is ASH 2. Very Expensive 3. Mixing It with Dirty Water (because there is lack of clean water supply in global south) 4. Manipulation (Convinced “good mothers” to do this, even modern western women) 5. Damage (World Health Organization estimates 500,000 - 1 million children in the global south dead due to this over a 20 year period) Migration: Advertising efforts moved from the West to 3rd world countries due to lack of legal restrictions. - Tobacco - Asbestos - Pharmaceuticals Drug testing: - The first version of birth control pill tested in Haiti. (At the time, it was 35 times more potent than what it is currently - this is how drug testing strategy works) Advertising Rules of T: 1. Obey laws 2. No fraud 3. Special care with children’s advertising 4. *No “misleading” advertising: average consumer standard 5. *Adhere to “community standards” of decency / propriety. * - ethics quandries Advertiser’s justification for 4 & 5 is to “cut through the clutter” - the only way to make advertising stand out is to take risks and push the boundaries of community standards. Is Advertising Wrong in General? Vance Packard: “Hidden Persuaders” J.K. Galbraith: “Affluent Society” 1. Advertising plays on & enhances people’s unhappiness, dissatisfaction, envy. This is not virtuous + has bad consequences. 2. Wade: Advertising creates false wants & deliberately encourages confusion between market goods (something that can be bought) & non-market goods (something that cannot be bought). 3. Packard’s line: “Advertising is the suspension of intelligence long enough to suck money out of it” - Creation of a false picture of reality that you want to believe it: fantasy. 4. Kantian Objection: - Lying / deception - Bad intentions: whatever buttons need to be pushed. 5. Waide: Focus on youth. - Partly because youth is gullible - Mostly because of brand loyalty: get them before 25 - Manipulative & exploitation 6. Galbraith: Advertising is designed to maximize aggregate demand by taking and rationalizing “PLANNED OBSOLESCENCE” Defenders of Advertising: 1. Free speech 2. Encourages competition 3. Doesn’t create non-existent need, it just plays on what’s already there 4. You say “manipulation”, we say FUN! (Legitimate cut through the clutter) 5. What’s the alternative? - Ban advertising? - Government-only advertising? 6. Consumer has to take responsibility “Buyer Beware!” Bribery: “TIM” (RIM) example. - Competitor against USA / EU companies - Foreign government official says that he demands a $100,000 bribe just to move his company’s product up the level of government for comparison. - Research needed to decide if this is worth it; “Due Diligence”: 1. Bribery was legal in that country 2. Bribery was actually expected culturally 3. Bribery is illegal in Canada 4. Our share-holders won’t agree* Policies on Bribery / Gift-Giving: Prohibitive Mixed Approach Permissive - Nothing - Dolla
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