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Lecture 12

PLAN103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Some Cities

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Markus Moos

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Plan 103 Lecture Tuesday March 26, 2013
Regional Planning
So many regions makes it difficult to plan: each municipality has its own mandate to do what is
best for their residents, lack of concern for needs of neighbouring municipalities
Venues for regional planning
For the Environment - Watersheds
oThinking about issues at this scale then we know we will be protecting the water going
into the river, being done in a conservation sense
Rural land and resources
oDealing with dispersed population as regional planning helps deal with resource and area
issues that will be more spread out,
Large Urban Regions - Economic development in resource regions
oSome cities have become so connected that it is no longer useful for planners to consider
individual cities but the wider region
Deal with it at larger than a city scale: consider consumption and production aspects of economic
activity: where are things produced, goods movement
oAllows us to understand how we can integrate transit in most efficient way
Focus on interrelationships between natural, social and economic factors, sustainable
Often think about transit expansion as costing lots of money but actually lower other costs like
Structure of Local Government
Two-tiered or single municipality
oFive considerations what scale we should plan at
Economies of scale, spillover effects, redistribution, demand criteria, and political
Spill over Effects
People in adjoining municipalities can benefit from a good or service without having to pay for it
(Or incur costs without benefit)
Can create greater equality and fairness
oJustice argument for redistribution that there is will for redistribution
oEconomics say redistribution can be inefficient, create unrest
Demand Criteria
Tiebout Hypothesis
oPeople vote with their feet – people move to places where they get the services they
oAssumes large number of municipalities with different public service levels because not
everybody wants the same level and types of services, gives choice
oAre people mobile: not that easy, have social ties, job commitments, limitation to theory
due to the lack of real mobility
Political Efficiency
Level of access and input into local decision making – assumes proximity to government
increases representation and input
Makes a case for decentralized government structure to allow for citizen participation
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