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Lecture 5

PLAN 341 Lecture 5: PLAN 341 – Lecture 5

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Mike Stone

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PLAN 341 – Lecture 5 (Jan 20) Soil, Land Use and Waste Disposal - bottom left picture showing stuff coming from dump which then leads to groundwater - recharge areas for drinking water, site where theres some type of pollution occurring, and some pollutants goes very quickly where water goes (chloride, nitrate) - drinking water contaminated cause of land use practices, recognition of where drink water areas are and land use on top is important - contaminant flumes moves from areas of high elevation to low elevation - groundwater moves naturally from high hydraulic head to low hydraulic head Landscape Form and Function - each of these eco regions, have all of these elements in them (dynamics, features, composition) - groundwater dynamics and interaction with soil - types of waste that are created are waste from military, industrial (radioactive materials, toxic organic materials) Soil Profile - O is top horizon with grass, b is area with roots, water moves up and down this system in area B, partial pressure of roots asserts a positive pressure on the water and can start to move it up - top of the surface can be so hot and the water can start to move up , and this moves up based on cohesive forces Forms of Soil Moisture - capillary water - water can be held to soil particles by cohesive forces - movement of water along a moisture gradient - water moves in vertical and horizontal directions - gravity water, moves in response to gravity, groundwater - cohesive forces which binds the water to the sediment and holds the water to the sediment and that’s the water used by plants, and then once these materials become saturated, the water moves down to the groundwater and that’s water that moves through gravity Drainage in Soils - particles that are large, the water moves quickly through these systems - small particles that are highly charged then the water stays - the rate at which the water penetrates the soil surface (cm/hr) is infiltration - permeability – rate at which the water moves down through the soil Soil Textural Triangle Soil Permeability - function of particle size - when you have clay, permeability rates is very low - sand and gravel, the permeability rate is high - exception of this is that in some low permeability material like clay, some of these materials can have pores or fractures (swelling cause of when they get wet and when they dry and shrink they pull apart) so rates for clay and rates for fractured clay, and when its fractured theres a flow path for the water Infiltration rate - infiltration as function of particle size, the lowest infiltration rates are at the top wher you have clay - the highest is at the bottom with larger particles Drainage of Soil Moisture - vegetation beside dominant flow path ways beside their fields because to prevent erosion Good Drainage - from land use planning perspective, want to know areas of good drainage -areas where gravity water readily transported through soil to groundwater table - soil doesn’t undergo prolonged periods of saturation Waste and land use planning - there are hot spots across the landscape that’ll have an impact on water quality Factors Affecting Generation of Municipal Waste - rate of urbanization, about 80% of all ppl in Canada live in urban areas, so becomes hot spot for waste production - types and patterns of consumption - household revenue - lifestyle choices Landfills - in the 70s and 80s, little recognition of land use, water dynamics, and human health - engineer landfill sites - if they produce waste products like nitrogen, metals, need to find ways to contain them - barrier b/w waste and groundwater Landfill Design - depression on ground, the depression is linked by barrier, barrier can be many different things (tephlon layer, add clay layer, add tephlon layer, so nested layers) - there’s material that waste is put in, the microberial from waste increases heat and the methane gas, as you add more pressure, you’re producing gas and increase temp, so sometime’s theres been explosions with landfill design - so methane gas is being treated - at bottom of these materials, any liquid is put in containment system and treated so that none of those materials go down in the system - multiple water wells at multiple statio
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