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PSCI 252 African:Middle East.pdf

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University of Waterloo
Political Science
PSCI 252
Tanya Korovkin

Historical lagacy in africa and middle east 1. colonializm in africa 2. african nationalism and ethno-nationalism 3. colonial controls in the Middle East 4. Arab nationalalism and islamic fundamentalism - sub saharan africans are usually christians or have traditonal religious beliefs - north africa has a primarily arab population predominately islam colonial rule in africa - why the 19th centure - there were some very powerful reasons - trade - the industrial revolution in europe was practically complete so european powers needed vast amounts of raw materials - there were political rivalries - british hegemony was on the delcine it was challenged by france germany USA etc. - These factors contributed to the division of the world - Africa became patritioned by european states while latin america stuck to the americas - euro nations would set up trading posts in those parts of the world, then send troops to protect them, then they would just declare those regions their colonies. - This was so effective that nations started fighting eachother inside of the continent of africa - they called for a conference to stop the fighting - African Conference in Germany, 1885 - only consisted of european nations; it called for the orderely division of colonies within africa - this conferece was followed by a very aggressive style of colonialism so that soon the entire nation was split up between euro nations ▯ - economic transformation - from self sufficient agrarian economies to primary export economies - vast agricultural exports saw a major decline of domestic food production - this continued beyond political independence and african nations became heavily dependent on imports and food aid - Political tranformation - from pre colonial structures: ethnic kingdoms; village institutions - interestingly many of these kin ship based villages had developed participatory insitutions - it was not democracy in the the traditonal sense but it had immense grass roots participation - european colonizers so that as backward, so they introduced the modern western model of the state - authoritarian model in africa - it was divided into three branched like europe, executive, judiciary, legislature; however - the executive and judiciary in africa were appointed by their european colonizers and the legislature had advisory status only. It was a modern state in a sense but it was also very authoritarian - dictators came from the fusion of the village institution model with the european authoritarian model. African nationalism and ethno-nationalism - grassroots resistance to colonialsm, plus... - the introduction of western style education - very few poeple could get access to this education; most african nations emerged out of colonialism with illiteracy rates at 80/90% - those of whom went to school, returned to play a very influential and political role, they formed the new middle class - a new african middle class - they had a very uneasy existance, torn between the traditional african heritage and their new european ideas - they saw a strong disconnection between the ideas of western lberalism and the brutal realities of colonialism - a national political leadership - nationalists in africa appeaerd as a response to european colonialsm seeking to develop a sovereign nation states wthin colonial boundaries - this movement gained momentum after t
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