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PSCI 252 - Human security.pdf

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Political Science
PSCI 252
Tanya Korovkin

Broad and Narrow Perspectives on Human Security 1. from state security to human security 2. broad view of HS: poverty and Millenium Development Goals 3. Narrow view of HS: vulnerable groups in the situations of violence - human rights is often defined as freedom from frear and freedom from want. This is a very old concept. Human Security is a very new concept with very little grounding in the realm of political study. Perhaps because of this or despite this, there is a sense of urgency around the notion of human security. There is a feeling that the international community is not doing enough to protect human rights. and that this negligence will undermine international peace and security. from state security to human security - state security - focus on nation states - the security of individual as a product of state security - military threats - new non military threats. - human security - individual security at the centre - focus on non-military threats Broadview of HS: poverty and MDGS: - too much money being spent on guns. UNDP came out with a report centred entirely around the concept of human security. “For too long security has been equated with a threat to a nations borders; more insecurity comes for most in the form of daily life and not from the threat of widespread global events: concepts like job security, food security, etc. - Ahuge focus was on poverty. Security of persons living in a situation of poverty and deprivation. not recieving enough aid, etc. UN MDGS 2000-2015 Goal 1 3. Narrow View of HS: vulnerable groups in the situations of violence, - security of persons/civilians threatened by violence, focus on the vulnerable groups “Children of drug trade,” Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (L.Dowdney) - although Brazil is seen as a major international actor with an emerging economy these days; Brazils largest city have extensive amounts of violent crime, those being most effected: children. Takes place most often in favelas (shanty towns). - growth of the illegal drug industry plus... the sense of hopelessness: limited access to education, high levels of youth unemployment - changing consumption patterns, globalized media - the weakening of kinship/community bonds - most peopl who live in favels cmae originally from rural areas where kinship boonds and very strong. these bonds disintegrate when people move to urban areas. This is precisely where youth gangs step in, offering kids a sense of belonging, order and security, something that the don’t get at the family or community level. The family/ kinship/community institutions in favelas are weak - but so are the state insitutions. - inadequate presence of the state - such things for example as public services, police; are absent. The result is that drug cartels in such areas replace the state authorities and become a sort of surrogate authority. They provide young people with jobs and a minimal standard of living; they sponsor community events like music festivals, etc; last but not least they create and enforce their own parallel system of laws and a brutal system of local justice and punishment. - many favelas or parts of favelas become states within a state. Which are very difficult situations for the government to deal with. What can the gov’ts or NGO’s do in these cases? - increased law enforcement; they were often reluctant to use force against drug cartels, but they have recently authorized the use of armed forces against cartels especially in the lead up to the Olympic games. - not just military and police, but increased investment in the public infrastruture of favelas: electricciy, plumbing, schools. etc.Also the gov’t authorized conditional cash transfers for favela residents to send their kids to school. - The regional governemnt also recently employed thousands of so called peace workers. They are mostly favela women; whose task is to promote a lifestlye of peace. - These peace workers organize cultural events, music festivals, very important to youth. In this way they are trying to recrea
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