Link to overhead notes online: http://www.politicalscience.uwaterloo.ca/courselinks.htm
Concept of disclosure – I, the state, have to prove you guilty. The burden of proof is on the state
and the prosecutor.
Principles of Criminal Law from the Ouimet Report
- Number 1 to 4
o The main purpose of the criminal code is protection (a serious harm).
o Make sure you remember the presumption of innocence
o Don‟t call it criminal unless it‟s a serious threat or harm
o If there‟s another way to deal with that person then do that so they don‟t have to
have a criminal record.
- Number 5
o The criminal justice process can protect society only by way of deterring
someone, with correctional measures (rehabilitation), or control over the offender
(putting them in jail).
- Number 6: smooth inter-relationship
- Number 7: discretion (a judge, jury, police, etc.) should not be robotic in terms of what
they do in a situations, they should be able to assess the situation and react accordingly;
they need to be able to look at each case individually (Mandatory minimum and
maximum sentences interfere with this principle though).
- Number 8: Whatever you do you are trying to please most of the people in society. For
the most part you need to have people respecting the way our justice system work; they
don`t have to agree with everything but generally they should like the way the justice
7 General Principles of Criminal Procedure
4. Restraint – restrain yourself rather than doing something too harsh
5. Accountability – don‟t abuse the discretion; people are held accountable for their decisions
6. Participation – the concept that if people seem that their involved or have a say in something
they are more apt to agree with it or respect the administration of justice. Diversion –
sometimes instead of prosecuting you give someone the right to divert themselves.
- “A series of actions which must be performed in order to validly administer justice w/i
- criminal statutes - define crimes and set out procedures
- For the protection of the Accused Rights and Liberties
1. Presumption of Innocence
2. Crown has Burden of Proof
3. Rt. to Silence
4. Rt. to make full answer and Defence
@ = against
- Detect/Investigate a Crime
- if RPG exists - Arrest/Apprehension (lay
- provide Disclosure (of case @ ) to Crown
- decides whether and how to proceed on
- (Have Discretion)
- Obtain Disclosure from Crown and meet with
- plead guilty or go to trial (i.e., not guilty)
- Have Pre-trial with Crown and/or Judge i.e.,
discuss whether withdraw charge, opinions on
Judge and/or Jury
a) do Guilty Plea in front of and sentences
b) go to Trial - decides if guilty or not guilty
and if guilty decides sentence.
*Note: either Provincially appointed (i.e.,
Provincial court) or Federally appointed (i.e.,
*Note: if Trial @ any Pre-trial Motions or
(i.e., Charter Motions, Third Party Records,
Criminal Record Applications, Similar Fact
Motions, Voluntariness Witness, Seabuyer
Bail Hearing: Police can charge and give a court date to come back to court – they can release
them on the scene on a appearance notice. A Bail hearing – do you get your freedom or not