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Lecture 1-5.docxfasRaymond Hodfasdfddddd

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Martha Savage

Theme: Getting Started th Lecture 2- May 4 2012 Email: [email protected] Biological Aspect  Pre-frontal cortex – being able to predict what’s in your best interest, the part that helps you do the right thing, not the easy thing  It was believed that virtues, values and ethics could not be studied scientifically  Orbito-frontal cortex- allows you to understand society and social behaviors  Phineas Gage o Pillar of the community o Family man o Transformed into a jerk  Could not maintain relationships, abandoned religion, developed certain “wrong” addictions o The reason why his personality changed was because his orbito-frontal lobe was taken out and thus his judgment on social norms was impaired Psychological Aspect  Personality traits o Interacting with character trait o Illustrates social aspect that comes with integrity  The effect of peer pressure is great o The example of three lines experiment – 1/6 people know the right answer but choose to declare the wrong answer because the majority of their peers (5/6) believe that the wrong answer is actually the correct one. th Lecture 3-May 7 2012 The Brain  Three levels of brain structure and function o Molecular –the synapse in detail o Cellular –the structure of the Reward System  neurons o ‘Gross’ anatomy –major divisions of the brain  Large scale anatomy –what are the different parts that make up the brain  Our tour guide will be cocaine Evil genius Mission –basically in order for a message to be sent between neurons the process is as follows. Although one would assume that the neurons are connected, this is in fact untrue. What actually occurs is the junction called the synapse between the dendrite of neuron 1 and the Axon of neuron 2. Within thesynapse there is a microscopic space where neurotransmitters are released (neurotransmitter release is the process) from vesicles that travel down the axon and are then, transmitted, from the dendrite of neuron 1 to neuron 2’s axon’s terminal branches(Figure 4.1 page 47).  Axon (transmitting the message) o Vesicles of transmitter o The-uptake Transporters  Synaptic Cleft o Enzymes to break-down Transmitter  Dentrite (receiving the message) o Receptors When we see the entire neuron, we find that within the axon it is an electrical process, then it chemically goes down the synapse, and finally within the dendrites it is electrical once again where it passes on to another axon. Question: Cocaine boosts the signal of Dopamine –What do you suppose it is actually doing in the synapse? Answer: Less re-uptake leaving more dopamine in the cleft Vocabulary  Cell bodies of neurons cluster into functional groups o these clumps are called nucleii  there are many meanings for nucleus, but here it means the clusters/clumps o literally thousands o very specific functions – superior colliculus  Axons go out from the nucleus together o cable called a Tract – these go to wherever their destination is The Reward System  Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) o Little structure in the brain that sends a tract  Tract projecting to  Nucleus Accumbens o The nucleus accumbens sends the tract to the brain  Tracts projecting to the ______________and the ___________________  The NA sends these tracts to various places including the pre-frontal cortex, the orbital-frontal lobe or the Anygdala Evil Genius Eradicates Pleasure  Molecular Level o Reduces the levels of dopamine in the reward system. This occurs through the repetitive use of cocaine and amphetamines. This occurs because the responding dopamine receptors are severely damaged and are unable to assist in the transmission of dopamine. Additionally it cannot process the ions and various enzymes.  Cellular levels o Damage to the various areas of the brain including the various parts of the nuclei: orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, n o o Damage the nucleii (VTA, Nuc. Accumbens, areas of orbitofrontal and prefrontal cortex) of the Reward System and their tracts. o Example is a rare type of stroke that just damages the tract from the Accumbens to the frontal cortex - result is no pleasure of any kind, which interestingly leaves people unable to make decisions. Theme: The Psychology of Studying Lecture 4: May 9, 2012 Meet Your Hippocampii  Take a look at the picture on (Page 344 of your text)  You have two of these – one buried deep in each of your temporal lobes.  What do they resemble to you? Shared vocabulary  Bio-Psycho-Social Spectrum  Axon, Neurotransmitter, Synapse, Receptor, Dendrite  Nucleus and Tract, Networks  Hindbrain, MidBrain, Forebrain (Cortex)  Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital Lobes  Limbic System Types of memory Sensory Working Long term Echoic memory – if it comes Phonological loop –if someone Explicit memory –when you from outside and it is heard gives you their phone number physically remember something, through you ears it is echoic and you keep reciting it to where it is located etc. and you yourself in a loop. It helps you can say it in words. remember it that way  Episodic  Semantic –memory that is just there, without us being able to locate where it’s coming from. This is where the information puts memories when info
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