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Martha Savage

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LECTURE 24 LANGUAGE Sections 32.1, 2, and 3 32-1 LANGUAGE STRUCTURE What are the structural components of a language? Phonemes Phoneme – in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit - uttering bat as b, a, and t or chat as ch, a, t (3 phonemes) Morphemes Morpheme – in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) - usually combination of 2 or more phonemes - includes prefixes and suffixes (pre- in preview, or the –ed that shows past tense) Grammar Grammar – in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others Semantics – the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning - ie: added –ed to laugh means that it happened in the past Syntax – the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language - ie adjectives usually come before nouns, so we say white house (in English at least) LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 32-2 When do we learn language? What are the milestones in language development? Receptive Language - babies’ ability to comprehend speech Productive Language - babies’ ability to produce words, matures after their receptive language 1) Babbling stage - beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech dev
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