LECTURE 24 LANGUAGE Sections 32.1, 2, and 3
32-1 LANGUAGE STRUCTURE
What are the structural components of a language?
Phoneme – in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
- uttering bat as b, a, and t or chat as ch, a, t (3 phonemes)
Morpheme – in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a
word (such as a prefix)
- usually combination of 2 or more phonemes
- includes prefixes and suffixes (pre- in preview, or the –ed that shows past tense)
Grammar – in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and
Semantics – the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and
sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning
- ie: added –ed to laugh means that it happened in the past
Syntax – the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given
- ie adjectives usually come before nouns, so we say white house (in English at least)
32-2 When do we learn language?
What are the milestones in language development?
- babies’ ability to comprehend speech
- babies’ ability to produce words, matures after their receptive language
1) Babbling stage
- beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech dev