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Psych - Development Psychology notes (textbook).docx
Psych - Development Psychology notes (textbook).docx

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University of Waterloo
Steve Spencer

 Learning - process by which behaviour/knowledge changes as a result of experience  Cognitive Learning - reading, writing, taking tests in order to acquire knowledge  Associative Learning → Ivan Pavlov o studied digestion with dogs o dogs had saliva before being presented with meat o tried again with metronome, metronome itself caused saliva o Classic Conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning) - learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by another stimulus o dog trained, once metronome was heard, knew food was coming o stimulus - external event.cue eliciting a response o unconditional stimulus - elicits a reflective response without learning o unconditional response - reflexive, unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus o conditioned stimulus - once a neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response bc it has a history of being paired w/ an unconditioned stimulus o conditioned response - learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus Processes of Classical Conditioning Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery  Acquisition - initial phase of learning in which a response is established  Extinction - loss/weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus no longer occur together  Spontaneous recovery - reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response, typically after one time has passed since extinction Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination  Stimulus generalization - process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different, though similar stimuli  discrimination - organism leaves to respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to the original Application of Classical Conditioning  classical conditioning applies to many situations (emotional learning, ads, etc) Conditioned Emotional Responses  Conditioned Emotional Reponses - consist of emotional and physiological responses that develop to a specific object or situation  Preparedness - biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli Conditioned Taste Aversions  conditioned taste aversion - acquired dislike/disgust of a food or drink because it was paired with illness  latent inhibition - frequent experience with a stimulus before it is paired with a US makes it less likely that conditioning will occur after a single episode of illness Learning Without Awareness Drug Use and Tolerance  classic conditioning (cigarette lighter, smell of smoke etc)  Conditioned drug tolerance - physiological responses in preparation for drug administration Sexual Arousal  fetish; sexual attraction and fixation on an object  conditioned sexual fetish forms if there is an association between object and sexual encounters Conditioning and Traumatic Brain Injury  rgrgrth The Paradox of “Diet” Beverage  with regular soda, body takes the sugar as stimulus to tell you to stop eating sugary things  with diet, body doesn’t sent the message to stop eating, so you eat more fatty things 6.2 Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences  operant conditioning - type of learning in which behavior is influenced by consequences o voluntary actions; speaking/listening, starting/stopping an activity, moving toward/away  classic conditioning vs operant conditioning o classical conditioning - response NOT required for reward o operant - response and consequence needed to learn Processes of Operant Conditioning  contingency - consequence depends upon action Reinforcement and Punishment  Reinforcement 0 process in which an event or reward that follows a responses increases the like hood of that response occuring again  Edward Thorndike o over time, cats able to escape from box bc they found easier methods o Law of effect - responses followed by satisfaction will occur again, those not followed by satisfaction become less likely  Reinforce- stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that increases the probability of that response occurring again  Punishment - process that decreases the future probability of a response  Punisher - stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that results in a decrease in behaviour Primary and Secondary Reinforces  Primary Reinforcers - consisting of reinforcing stimuli that satisfy basic motivational needs  Secondary Reinforcers - reinforcing stimuli that acquire their value through learning  nucleus accumbens becomes activated during processing of rewards  token economies used to encourage appropriate behaviours while discouraging inappropriate ones Positive and Negative Reinforcement and Punishment  Positive Reinforcement - strengthening of behavior after potential reinforcers (praise, $ etc) follow that behavior o stimulus introduced/increased  B.F. Skinner  Negative Reinforcement - strengthening of behaviour bc it removes/diminishes a stimulus o stimulus has been reduced/avoided  Avoidance learning - specific type of negative reinforcement that removes the possibility that a stimulus will occur  Escape learning - if response removes stimulus that is already present  Positive Punishment - process in which a behavior decreases bc it adds/increases a particular stimulus  Negative Punishment - occurs when a behaviour decreases bc it removes/diminishes a particular stimulus Extinction, Stimulus Control, Generalization and Discrimination  extinction - weakening of an operant response when reinforcement is no longer available  discriminative stimulus - cue/event that indicates that a response, if made, will be reinforced  generalization - operant response takes place to a new stimulus that is similar to the stimulus present during original learning  discrimination - operant response made to one stimulus but not to another Applications of Operant Conditioning Shaping  shaping - procedure where a specific operant response is created by reinforcing successive approximations of that response Schedules of Reinforcement  schedules of reinforcement - rules that determine when reinforcement is available  continuous reinforcement - every response made results in reinforcement  partial (intermittent) reinforcement - only certain number of responses are rewarded, or certain amount of time must pass before reinforcement is available o fixed ratio schedule - reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been completed o variable ratio schedule - number of responses required to receive reinforcement varies according to an average o fixed interval schedule - reinforces the first response occurring after a set amount of time passes o variable interval schedule - in which the first response is reinforced following a variable amount of time  partial reinforcement effect - refers to a phenomenon in which organizes that have been conditioned under partial reinforcement resist extinction longer than those conditioned under continuous reinforcement 6.3 - Cognitive and Observational Learning Cognitive Perspectives on Learning The Past Predicts the Future: Cognitive Processes and Conditioning Latent Learning  Edward Tolman o latent learning - learning not immediately expressed by a response until organism is reinforced for doing so o used rats as test objects o some rats given chance to explore maze, some weren't for food 10.1 - Methods, Concepts and Prenatal Development  development psychology - study of change and stability of human physical, cognitive, social and behavioural characteristics across the life span MEASURING DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS: ETHODS AND PATTERNS Methods of Measuring Development  cross sectional design - used to measure and compare samples of people at diff ages at a given point in time  longitudinal design - follows the development of the same set of individuals through time o attrition - when participants stop returning mail/phone calls  cohort effects - consequences of being born in a particular year or narrow range of years Patterns of Development: Stages and Continuity  children grow and change fast  adults change slower The Importance of Sensitive Periods  sensitive period - window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environment stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability PRENATAL TO NEWBORNS: FROM ONE CELL TO BILLIONS Fertilization and Gestation germinal stage - first phase of prenatal development and spans from conception to two weeks  zygote - cell formed by sperm and egg  gestation age - estimated time since fertilization o 6 days = blastocyst o moves to fallopian tubes, implanted in uterus lining o placenta formed  embryonic stage - spans two weeks through eight, during when embryo begins developing major physical structures (
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