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Motivation Tuesday March 5.docx

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Richard Ennis

Tuesday March 5 Motivation - Eg. Pen dropping to table because of force of gravity, infer that there is a force, - Focus on behaviour, why do people do what they do? Sources of human action Characteristics of Motivation - Behaviour ambassador of underlying motivation - Motivation can vary quickly, can be stable -> like personality characteristic - Unlike learning, which is permanent - Motivation is not permanent Measures of Motivation - Eg. Can calculate the rate at which the pen falls - Intensity of behaviour used to measure motivation - Choices that people make, what goals setting, choices reflect intensity of stuff we seek - Level of challenge -> eg. Climbing, don’t want to climb Everest - Persistance in trying to reach end state despite challenges - Eg. Athletes-> eg. Injury, opponent withdrawal -> less motivated - -> increase intensity -> more motivated - Over human history, grand theories to more constricted theories MECHANISTIC APPROACH Internal Forces - Automatic or voluntary, mechanical, not playing active role in behaviour - Applies to all living organisms - 1) Instincts-> predetermined to behave in certain ways in certain conditions, triggers will cause us to behave in certain ways, exist without learning, must be in all humans, “little behavioural packages”, instinctive behaviours eg. Newborns, if touch cheek will turn to find breast - The more simple the CNS, the more reliance on instincts - 2) Needs and Drives - Clark Hull - Drive occurs in physical body Eg. Hunger-> create internal state, behaviour directed to reduce drive -> call Pizza Hut, attempt to reach homeostasis - Biological aspects of human behaviour (eg. Body temperature, hunger) - Problem: assume, want to reach 0 arousal, want to create drive - Eg. Making friends -> need for attachment -> but people want more - Conrad Lorenz - Hydraulic model - Pressure builds and has to find release - Eg. Hunger, aggression - Instincts like aggression triggered by event-> eg. Territorial - Sigmund Freud Psychodynamic Theory - 2 basic instincts: aggression and procreation - Competing forces within and have to find expression - Drive reducing behaviour to reach catharsis (0 arousal) - In order to find expression, have to find outlet, discharge impulse - - External Forces: Incentives - Behaviour pulled by desired state or outcome - Certain outcomes have incentive values that are desirable or undesirable - The Law of Effect -> explain why engage in certain behaviours, previous reinforcement (positive outcomes vs negative outcomes), motivational theory - Complaints that mechanistic: all organisms the same HUMANISTIC APPROACH - 2 important theorists: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers from Harvard - Person in charge of actions and behaviours - Cognitively involved human being - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs/Motives: life is quest for “Holy Grail” (state of self- actualization -> realizing potential as human being, motivating end state, continue to pursue) - First have to meet physiological needs then can start psychological need fulfillment - Next Harry Harlow -> find social
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