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Finish up Motivation and Sigmund Freud Tuesday March 12.docx

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Richard Ennis

Finish up Motivation and Sigmund Freud Tuesday March 12, 2013 MOTIVATION Cognitive Approach Edward Deci and Richard Ryan - theory: cognitive evaluation theory - outcomes have values, motivating individual to produce outcome -> extrinsic value - nothing about behaviour’s value -> instrinsic value - get pleasure out of action eg. motivated by outcome to perform well in school, but also may find satisfaction in the action itself of learning eg. enjoy skating and want to compete in the Olympics - can be motivated to perform action because of intrinsic value of behaviour with no outcome needed eg. watch TV because want to - additive motivation -> motivated by action and end result eg. as preschooler, enjoy making crafts and art, and get added motivation when goes onto fridge - Undermining Motivation -> focus can get drawn to extrinsic , deterioration of the intrinsic value over time, then behaviour controlled by outcomes, can lose pleasure of activity Eg. current students lost pleasure in acquiring knowledge because of emphasis on grades and degrees etc. Eg. dentist who loved dentistry not for the money. As client number grew, what he used to love becomes work. Loses intrinsic value and only focused on extrinsic value. -> alcohol Now, volunteers for Doctors without Borders and has regained intrinsic value of dentistry Eg. Michael Jordan -> switched to baseball for a bit - Behaviour controlled by positive outcome -> extrinsically motivated Eg. need paycheck to play hockey - Undermining-> behaviour sufficient enough to provide a reward Social Approach Henri Tajfel and John Turner - Social Identity: 2 sources of esteem - People with higher esteem are more motivated - People have multiple identities, but will focus on social and personal identity - Personal Identity -> “tell me about yourself”, what individualizes you from the crowd, what you feel compared to the relative population are accomplishments - Social Identity -> how part of the crowd, sense of belonging, social network, do people like me, am I similar to others, relationships - Like a tight rope -> want to be seen as individual yet want to fit in - Feel esteem from personal accomplishments and from recognition from others - Personal Identity -> achievements - Social Identity -> Harlow’s attachment, social experiences - Only personal identity can be enough to have positive esteem - Or only social identity can be enough to have positive esteem -> know a lot of people, people like me - If only have dominant source of esteem, vulnerable to any problem to that esteem - Personal-> eg. fail course, lose client - Social -> eg. go to bar without you The Buffering Hypothesis - If have multiple sources of esteem can protect against problems - Multiple personal identities -> dancer and student Eg. if flunk midterm, focus on dance  Switch tracks to different identity - Multiple social identities -> switch social groups Eg. have only a couple friends you depend on -> don’t want to rely on solely on them Have different social groups-> eg. club members, sports team, family Approach-Avoidance as Esteem Strategies - People with high self esteem should choose the difficult challenge - If have weak self-esteem, should choose easy path - From expectancy value theory, the strong esteem will choose moderate difficulty - However, low esteem choose the easiest and the MOST Difficult task (not rational) -> these people are buffering self-esteem -> sense of failure is a fear -> if probability of success low, can’t conclude that are a failure because the task is hard and everyone would not do well Eg. going down suicide hill, if fail, most people would anyways - People with weak self esteem, avoid moderate activities at all cost because of the fear of failure at a task most people would pass -> hit personal and social identity SIGMUND FREUD - Initially wanted to be a neurologist -> but couldn’t because he was a Jew - Could be either doctor or lawyer -> becomes doctor - Conversion hysteria -> affected wealthy people, esp women, have emotional and psychological problems that lead to physiological problems such as paralysis -> little sympathy for these people - Freud expresses interest in cases, gets more clients - The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)  Wants to gain access to unconscious world  Tries hypnosis to get to know women’s unconscious mind  Free association “talking cure” -> get people to talk in relaxed environment  Not successful book until American named Johnson -> becomes popular in States  Johnson’s version of Freud’s book was translated into many languages even into German Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Theories - Psychodynamic theory -> all aspects of development, motivation and mental health are a result of dynamic forces in unconscious mind “Freud’s grand theory” - Psychoanalysis- > way to treat psychodynamic problems or disorders - “Feuding – Freudians” ***Carl Jung The Structures of Personality: Id, Ego, Superego - Personality made up of 3 characters
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