18 September 2012
Background: Industrial Revolution
If one was not of noble birth, of the working class, would not have access to formal education.
Especially during the industrial revolution; when children became of working age, they were
forced to work in factories (child slavery).
o The most dangerous jobs given were to mines where bombs were set off frequently.
Children are viewed as saplings: they are made of the same material just miniature. Children are
just small adults so they should work like adults.
Freud and Piaget argued that children are like caterpillars in that by the time they are done
growing they look completely different from how they did in the beginning.
Affective Development: Attachment Theory
Freud’s Sexual Stages (oral stimulus)
Harry Harlow was a behaviourist, meaning that he would use animals to experiment upon (e.g.
If one was rich enough they would experiment on chimpanzees, which they would tend to breed
Apparently, in captivity the mothers would lose their maternal attachments to offspring and
infant mortality rate was almost 100%.
The researchers would then remove them from the mothers, and they would be take care of
their basic needs (e.g. food, water, hygiene).
Many babies would act up as their diapers were being removed, which Harlow hypothesised
was a kind of surrogate mother.
Figure 3-9, page 76 Harlow’s Monkey –rearing experiment
Results of Harlow’s Research
Conclusion was that there was a mechanism (love) that contributes to the bonds of primates
and humans developing during their lives. And that it’s evolving throughout the constant
Children grow a bond, or get attached to, their primary caregiver and it can only work so long as
the caregiver also gets attached to the infant.
There is a separation cry that all mammals during the period of dependence which summons the
People are wired to be concerned about the wellbeing of an infant. Example: there are social
occasions and then the baby shows up, they will flock to it.
Mary Ainsworth – “Strange Situation” diagrammatic sketch figure 15.5, events in the “ ”