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learning memory.docx

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Richard Ennis

9 October 2012 Learning & Memory Learning as Contiguity  Locke - tabula rasa "blank slate" o Experience determines what we feel and our decision making  Pavlov, Russian physiologist, an icon that even Stalin and Lenin would not mess with o Performed cruel and sadistic experiments on dogs to see if different foods produced more salivation o He first believed that dogs would have "psychic secretions" when dogs salivated prior to food o He then studied these "psychic secretions"  Symbols: o S = Stimulus, R = response, SR = Stimulus-Response o N = neutral, U = Unconditioned, C = Conditioned  Acquisition - "Learning Process"  Extinction - "Unlearning Process"  Spontaneous Recovery - "Relearning Process"; much faster than acquisition  Generalization - any similar stimulae (e.g. any bell)  Discrimination - only a peculiar stimulae (e.g. only B# bell)  John "Swats" Watson: o Hated the philosophical part of philosophy o One of his grad students provide him with scientific work from Russia, and translated it o Became the father of "Behaviourism" o "Little Albert" studies: o White bunny = Neutral stimulus  A Gong = Stimulus, which scares him  They pair the two together and eventually Albert gets scared whenever he saw the white bunny  Then they would generalize it as any furry creature  Mother eventually takes him out of program and they are never seen again  He goes to New York and opens up an advertising company using his practice of classical conditioning Learning as Contingency: From Watson to Skinner  Law of Effect – Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)  Learning can take place in a different way other than simply association by contiguity.  Put a cat in a cage, food dish is outside of cage, cat tries to reach the food between the bars.  In the cage, there is a pedal that opens the door to the cage; cat finally steps on the pedal accidentally and door opens.  Puts cat back in cage and cat eventually figures out that stepping on the pedal = freedom.  Positive outcome -> behaviour increases, negative outcome -> behaviour decreases (law of effect). Also called OPERANT (instrumental, Skinnerian) CONDITIONING.  B.F. Skinner: Experimented on pigeons; there would be a button they could peck to release a food pellet. Pigeons would accidentally peck the button and food would be deliver
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