30 October 2012
Person: Motivation comes within the
Behaviour: We have certain instincts to Outcomes: Certain outcomes have
person, a sort of instinct to engage inbehave a certain way. For example, value. And when we obtain them, the
certain behaviours. For example, the aggression is more prominent in two law of effect with come in, reinforcing
sucking response, this is an instinctivyear olds. or preceding the behaviour. There is an
behaviour. incentive value.
Driven by our instincts, as well as our
needs and drives.
Mechanistic Approach – They are automatic and mechanic in terms of how we act. We do them automatically. Some of
our motivation comes from within the individual
Internal Push: Instincts, Needs, and Drives
o Example. When we’re hungry. Hunger is what propels our drive to eat.
o Hydraulic model: Our physiological factors build in strength, and the drive increases, and once these
needs are satisfied, they decrease. Needs are build, and you draw onto that behaviour.
o Need-Drive Model
o Going back to Harry Harlow’s experiments; we enter the world for a need for social interaction, in order
to form a bond or emotional connection with our caregiver. There is an instinctive component to it
because we arrive with some of these needs
o Drive Production Theories: In the absence of any attachment, the need would begin to grow and
become a hunger. The longer the absence continues, the stronger the drive comes to interact and socialize
with others. Then once you are satisfied, the motive and needs begins to produce
Humanistic Approach – The action haves in the person, particular in the notion of a human being. Looking at why
humans are doing what they are doing, doing examples with a cat are limited. Especially in terms of social and
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
actualization •Needto lliveup toone'sfllest and uniquepotential
Esteem Needs fromothersndence;need for recognitionand respect
Belongingness and love •Needto loveand be loved,tobelong and be
needs accepted,need to avoidlonelinessand
•Needto feel thattheworldis
Safety Needs organizedand predicatble;needto
feel safe,secure,and stable
•Needto satisfyhunger and
Physiological Needs thirst
o But unfortunately it’s garbage. He had never tested it or experimented it, yet people use it 30 October 2012
o Harry Harlow, for example, rebutted this hierarchy, and that our primary needs are vital. We have been
full-filling them since day one.
o Carl Rogers – He was a clinician, a practicing psychotherapist, and did research instead of theorize. His
notion on self-actualization was built more on the studies of Freud
We have an ideal self and a real self in terms of our own perception. But there is a clash between
them. He had argued that emotional health between the real and ideal self isn’t all that great.
For example, students on their academic self – UW students who will find a great job
down the road, and what we’re working towards;