Class Notes (837,000)
Canada (509,985)
Psychology (2,075)
PSYCH 101 (705)
Lecture

Learning.docx

3 Pages
121 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Winter

Description
Learning Associations - Pairing things together Eg. advertisers sell things by pairing things such as scenery, music, attractive people etc. - Two kinds of associations we use to learn: Contiguity and Contingency (from older psych theories about how we acquire behaviour) Learning as Continguity: From Aristotle to Pavlov John Locke (1632-1704) and “tabula rasa” - Association belief: people born with blank slate and what we learn, experience etc. fills up the blank slate Ivan Pavlov (Classical – Pavolvian – Conditioning) - Classical Conditioning -> Creating an association by contiguity -> associate things based on time or space  simple stimulus response learning - S = stimulus, R = reponse - Start with stimulus and a response take a new stimulus and pair it with model build a new stimulus response Learning Concepts - Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience - Three phases: 1) Acquisition Phase -> when connection is made (the learning phase) and the period of time when an association is occurring 2) Possibility of Extinction -> association diminishing 3) Spontaneous Recovery -> if association is remade (association will be created easily) or the recovery of an extinct association - Basic Learning 1) Generalization -> dog salivates to another kind of bell (a bell is a bell) 2) Discrimination -> dog will salivate to specific bells - A conditioned response is usually a weaker version of an unconditioned response Note: conditioned never really replaces the unconditioned response John Broadus Watson: Behaviorism - Founder of behaviourism - Wanted to replicate what Pavlov did in Russia -> see if classical conditioning applies to humans - “Little Albert” Studies –Rosalie Rayner and John Watson - Radical Behaviourism Watson believed innate tendencies do not play a large role in our behaviours, the environment does - A stimulus from the environment would result in a certain response (behaviour) Learning as Contingency: From Watson to Skinner - Behaviourism starts to become popular Edward Thorndike (1874-1949): Law of Effect - Started experimenting with chicken, then with cats - Discovered learning by contingency - Law of Effect -> learning can occur in different ways other than simply “association by contiguity” -> causal situation between stimulations and outcomes - Builds a “puzzle box” (cage)  Puts cat in cage and puts food outside its cage to motivate car to release itself  Cat would accidentally open its cage and realize how to get out of the cage  Now the cat understands there is a connection between its behaviour and his desired outcome = contingency link between behaviour and outcome - Positive outcome increase probability organism will repeat behaviour believe led to outcome It will increase “causal” behaviour that it thinks led to outcome - A negative outcome will decrease or eliminate what is believed to be the “causal” behaviour - Basic Model: Environmental (Stimu
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit