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PSYCH 101 (705)


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Richard Ennis

Learning Associations - Pairing things together Eg. advertisers sell things by pairing things such as scenery, music, attractive people etc. - Two kinds of associations we use to learn: Contiguity and Contingency (from older psych theories about how we acquire behaviour) Learning as Continguity: From Aristotle to Pavlov John Locke (1632-1704) and “tabula rasa” - Association belief: people born with blank slate and what we learn, experience etc. fills up the blank slate Ivan Pavlov (Classical – Pavolvian – Conditioning) - Classical Conditioning -> Creating an association by contiguity -> associate things based on time or space  simple stimulus response learning - S = stimulus, R = reponse - Start with stimulus and a response take a new stimulus and pair it with model build a new stimulus response Learning Concepts - Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience - Three phases: 1) Acquisition Phase -> when connection is made (the learning phase) and the period of time when an association is occurring 2) Possibility of Extinction -> association diminishing 3) Spontaneous Recovery -> if association is remade (association will be created easily) or the recovery of an extinct association - Basic Learning 1) Generalization -> dog salivates to another kind of bell (a bell is a bell) 2) Discrimination -> dog will salivate to specific bells - A conditioned response is usually a weaker version of an unconditioned response Note: conditioned never really replaces the unconditioned response John Broadus Watson: Behaviorism - Founder of behaviourism - Wanted to replicate what Pavlov did in Russia -> see if classical conditioning applies to humans - “Little Albert” Studies –Rosalie Rayner and John Watson - Radical Behaviourism Watson believed innate tendencies do not play a large role in our behaviours, the environment does - A stimulus from the environment would result in a certain response (behaviour) Learning as Contingency: From Watson to Skinner - Behaviourism starts to become popular Edward Thorndike (1874-1949): Law of Effect - Started experimenting with chicken, then with cats - Discovered learning by contingency - Law of Effect -> learning can occur in different ways other than simply “association by contiguity” -> causal situation between stimulations and outcomes - Builds a “puzzle box” (cage)  Puts cat in cage and puts food outside its cage to motivate car to release itself  Cat would accidentally open its cage and realize how to get out of the cage  Now the cat understands there is a connection between its behaviour and his desired outcome = contingency link between behaviour and outcome - Positive outcome increase probability organism will repeat behaviour believe led to outcome It will increase “causal” behaviour that it thinks led to outcome - A negative outcome will decrease or eliminate what is believed to be the “causal” behaviour - Basic Model: Environmental (Stimu
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