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Lecture 1

PSYCH 101 Lecture 1: Lecture 1

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Megan Mc Carthy

Psychology: Scientific investigation with research design about mental processes (internal) and behaviour (observable) Ethics: informed consent, minimized harm, respect for dignity, freedom to withdraw, privacy Important figures Person Year Theories Socrates and Plato 400 Mind separate of body with innate knowledge Aristotle 384-322 Mind connected to body with learned knowledge Renee Descartes 1596-1650 Mind and body are distinct and connected through blood substances John Locke 1632-1704 Tabula rasa – the mind and body are made of the same substance James Mill 1773-1836 The mind is entirely physical and follows natural laws Hermann Von Helmholtz Nerves take time to transmit depending on stimulus strength/length Wilhelm Wundt and Structuralism: Breaking down worldly experience into components that go into forming a Edward Titchener thought (introspection) William James Functionalism: What is the adaptive purpose of consciousness and behavioural processes? David Rosenhan 1973 – Observed that (lack of) mental illness is hard to detect and that the placebo effect is in place Levels of analysis/ influence Type Explanation Example Biological Genetic predisposition, evolution, brain anatomy Predisposed for addiction Psychological Perception, cognition, emotional responses Stress relief when smoking Sociocultural Relationships, culture, society Peer pressure to smoke Assumptions of psychology ▪ Empiricism: Knowledge based on observation, not common sense ▪ Determinism: All events are governed by case and effect – lack of free will You can make a choice but you couldn’t control all the pre=determined factors that led up to you being able to make that choice Research methodology Hindsight bias Believing after learning an outcome, that it was foreseeable Overconfidence in deduction/intuition abilities Scientific method 1: Observation
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