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Lecture 2

PSYCH 101 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 notes

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Megan Mc Carthy

Nature .vs. Nurture Nature: Genetic composition Nurture: Everything after conception Certain traits are more influenced by heritability or environment 1: Identical twin study: If separated at birth and raised in different environments, traits attributed to heritability 2: Adopted child study: Share genes with biological parents and environment with adoptive parents but most of the influence is from biological factors Big 5 traits: Extroversion, Neuroticism, Agreeability, Conscientiousness, and Openness to experiences Intelligence is more heritable than personality (more heritable with higher socioeconomic status) Personality is affected by the nonshared environment Issues with heritability studies: Womb environment, evocative effect, similarities in adoptive family standards With no uniform environments, explanations for trait variance = genes Evolutionary psychology Altruism and society developed for reciprocal help, mating benefits, group cohesion, resource sharing Kin altruism: The more genes shared, the more likely we are to help others at our own expense Sex differences: Men and women vary in mating preferences, mating strategies, and jealousy What naturally exists is not always morally acceptable The neuron Part Function Process Charge Cell bodySoma Nucleus with genetic material [Gradient]: in, + out Resting 70 Dendrites Receive input Na channels open, + in Axon hillock Signals travel to axon Adjacent Na open, more + in All or nothing Action optional By high enough stimulus K channels open, + out Threshold 55 Axon terminal (vesicles) End of signal Na channels close Refractory +40 Neurotransmitters Released to carry signal K channels stay open, + out Reuptake 70 Action potentials Propagation: Through voltage gated sodium and potassium pumps that undergo conformational changes Refractory: Switch from activated to inactivated so membrane potential can recover quickly and the signal only goes in one direction 1: No stimulus: Channels closed, charge is constant 2: Current: Channels activated and membrane polarizes till +40 3: After: Channels inactivated even though the membrane is still depolarizing End: Na inside and K outside so the pumps slowly replace them to original resting state Types of neurons 1: Motor: Send signals to motor systems in tissue from the brain 2: Sensory: Carry information from sensesautonomic nervous system to the brain 3: Interneuron: Communicate with each other in brainspinal cord Myelin Glial cells make fatty myelin sheaths which wrap around axons and expose nodes of Ranvier (where action potentials occur) Saltatory conduction: When Na channels open, the myelin insulation pushes the positive charge down to the next node by opening more channel (like a signal jump for faster transmission) Multiple Sclerosis: Hardening of sheath or nerve damage due to autoimmune deficiency Missprogrammed T cells release cytokines to attract B cells, macrophages, and microglia across the blood brain barrier to attack oligodendrocytes, myelin, and axons which destroy cells and cause lesions Neural communication Synapse: Gaps between neurons Neurotransmitters: Chemicals released from vesicles at protein channels after an action potential that travel across synapses and specifically bind to dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron Excitatory: Makes the next neuron more likely to firestart its own action potential Inhibitory: Makes the next neuron less likely to firestart its own action potential
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