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First Lecture Notes on the first lecture

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Amanda Clark

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Pshychology - Scientific study of behaviour and mental processes - Scientific  testing/observing - Behaviour  anything we can observe and record - Mental Processess  internal & subjective experiences Socrates and Plato - Mind and body are distinct - Mind endures after death - Knowledge is born Aristotle - Mind and body are connected - Knowledge is aquired and stored in memories DaVinci - Ventricular hypothesis o Common sense  Sensations, images, fantasies and imagination o Cognition  Reasoning, judgement, thoght o Memory Rene Decartes - Fluid in brain, ‘animal spirit’ flows directly to the muscles to produce movement Franz Jospeh Gall - Phrenology o Shape and curvature of skull reveals person mental faculites and character traits Wilhelm Wundt - Develops first labrotory Structuralism - Edward Bradford Titchener - Used introspection (looking inward) to serach for the minds structural elements - Unreliable because its results varies from person to person Functionalism - William James - Focues on how our mental and behaviour process function Behavioursim: view of psychology - Should be an objective science (agreed with) - Studies behaviour without reference to mental processes - John Watson & B.F. Skinner - Reject introspection altogether Humanistic psychology: Emphasized growth potential of healthy people Cognitive neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition Nature – Nurture Issue - Empiricism: Knowledge comes from experiences o Learned through the senses - Nativism: Learning is based on innate predispositions (genetics) Natural Selection - Amoung the range of inherited traits, those that contribute to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed to succeeding generations Hindsight bias: tendency to believe, after learnin
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