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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Personality.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 101
Professor
Richard Ennis

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Lecture 9: Personality Outline: • Definition o Intro to Shyness • Psychodynamic view of personality o Personality as a conflict o Shyness as a symptom • Behavioural View of Personality o Personality as Response tendencies o Shyness as faulty learning • Socio-cognitive view of personality o Personality as self-efficacy o Shyness as low perceived self-efficacy • Humanistic view of personality o Personality as growth o Shyness as social strategy • Trait view of personality o Personality as trait hierarchy o Shyness as descriptive Personality (personality trait): something that is relatively stable, consistent across time and situations; individual differences are shown (people will differ in the extent to which they possess the trait); o Trait vs. state: example of shyness. State Shyness Trait Shyness “garden” variety “personality” variety 80% of population 25% of population Shy in certain situations only (i.e.: Pervasive shyness: strangers, authority, opposite sex, public 1. across situations appearance). 2. across time Minimal negative consequences and Severe consequences: possibly positive consequences (i.e.: may • enjoying social events/meeting new elicit empathic response). people • inhibits communication, expression, and assertiveness • promotes excessive self consciousness and self preoccupation (i.e.: introversion) • prone to low self esteem, stress, loneliness, and depression • Psychodynamic viewpoint: o Shyness is a result of an unresolved oedipal conflict  “His unfulfilled longing for his mother’s affection and oedipal strivings led to castration fear, aggravated by the fact that his father was realistically a threatening figure. With the stimulation of sexual drive at puberty, John’s wishes assumed incestuous implications. All sexual interest consequently became taboo, and shyness ensues, the result of repression.”  “In shyness the traumatic force of the social event begins with a displacement of a dangerous grandiosity from elsewhere in the patient’s life where it is active in a subjectively more benign form. The torment embodied in the symptom of shyness (the dread of being overlooked, ignored, rejected) is also displaced onto the social event from subjectively more benign expressions of derogation and disdain elsewhere in the patient’s life.” o Resolution of shyness is discovering the initial cause of the unresolved oedipal conflict.  Get to the unconscious mind to find the issue, and then through therapy help to fix the conflict. In turn, they should lose their shyness once the conflict is resolved. • Behaviourist viewpoint: o No such thing as a personality trait.  Person x’s environment  behaviour (shy)  outcomes o Shyness is simply a set of learned behaviours that are faulty or maladaptive.  Thorndike’s law of effect: in the past, shy behaviour has been reinforced by outcomes/more socially outgoing behaviours have been punished. Eventually it generalizes across all environments, and you find yourself in a consistently shy state. o Anything that has been learned can be unlearned. Behavioralist will try to find the contingencies that are influencing the shy and undermining the outgoing behaviours and alter them (transferring the positive outcomes to the outgoing behaviour and the negative to the shy). o Shyness is the disorder, not a symptom of something sepa
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