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Psych 101 Test 1 Review Contains all the info needed for test 1, from textbook and powerpoints

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Amanda Clark

Chapter 7 Consciousness - our awareness of ourselves and our environment Cognitive neuroscience - the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our mental processes Dual processing - the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks Selective attention - the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Inattentional blindness - failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed somewhere Change blindness - failing to notice changes in the environment Chapter 8 Circadian rhythm - the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle REM Sleep - rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active Sleep Stages  90 minute, 5 stage cycle  Stage 1 you experience images, hallucinations  Relax for 20 minutes in stage 2  Few minutes to go to 3 and then 4, brain emits delta waves which last for 30 mins Alpha waves - the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state Sleep - periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation Hallucinations - false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus Delta waves - the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep Why do we sleep?  9 hours of sleep at night we awake refreshed, sustain better moods, and perform more efficient and accurate work  5 hours of sleep at night will make you feel terrible and uneasy as you are in debt of sleep. The Effects of Sleep Loss  Makes you fatter  increases the hunger-arousing hormone ghrelin and decreases its hunger-suppressing partner, leptin  increases the stress hormone cortisol, which stimulates body to make fat  suppress immune cells that fight off viral infections and cancer  Alters metabolic and hormonal functioning in ways that mimic aging and are conductive to hypertension and memory impairment  Irritability, slowed performance, impaired creativity, concentration, and communication What is sleep's function?  Sleep protects  Sleep helps us recuperate - restore and repair brain tissues  Sleep is for making memories - restoring and rebuilding our fading memories of the day's experiences  Sleep also feeds creative thinking - dreams have inspired noteworthy literary, artistic, and scientific achievements  Sleep may play a role in the growth process - the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone Sleep Disorders Insomnia - recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy - a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks, The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. Sleep Apnea - a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings Night terrors - a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered Dreams - a sequence of images, emotions, and thought passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery. discontinuities and incongruities. and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it Manifest content - according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream Latent Content - according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream Why we dream?  To satisfy our own wishes  To file away memories  To develop and preserve neural pathways  To make sense of neural static  To reflect cognitive development REM Rebound - the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated reawakening during REM sleep) Chapter 10 Psychoactive Drugs - a chemical substance that alters perception and moods Tolerance - the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of drug, requiring the user to take longer and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect Withdrawal - the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug Physical Dependence - a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued Psychological dependence - a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions Addiction - compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences Myths about addiction 1. Addictive drugs quickly corrupt; for example, morphine taken to control pain is powerfully addictive and often leads to heroin abuse 2. Addictions cannot be overcome voluntarily; therapy is required 3. We can extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug dependencies, but a whole spectrum of repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviours Psychoactive Drugs Depressants - drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions  Alcohol - in large amounts it's a depressant, in small amounts it's a stimulant  Disinhibition - increases harmful tendencies  Slowed Neural Processing - Reactions slow, speech slurs, skilled performance deteriorates  Memory Disruption  Reduced Self Awareness and Self control  Expectancy Effects  Alcohol + Sex = The Perfect Storm Barbiturates - drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement Opiates - opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety Stimulants - drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Amphetamines - drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes Methamphetamine - a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels Caffeine - psychoactive substance, keeps you awake, the more you take it the less tolerant it gets Nicotine - compulsive and mood altering drug and also reinforcing Cocaine - enters the blood stream, and a rush of euphoria that depletes the brain's supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Result is crash of depression. Ecstasy - MDMA - both stimulant and a mild hallucinogen. It triggers dopamine release. And releases serotonin and blocking its re-absorption giving the good feeling o produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition Hallucinogens - psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD - a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid THC - the major active ingredient in marijuana; tr
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