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Module 8 Notes taken from module 8 of the psych textbook, (9th edition)

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Colin Mac Leod

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Chapter 8- Sleep and Dreams - When you are asleep, the brain`s auditory cortex will still respond to sound stimuli Biological Rhythms and Sleep - Circadian Rhythm o Our bodies synchronize roughly to the 24 hour cycle of day and night and through a biological clock called the circadian rhythm o Body temperature rises as the morning approaches, it peaks during the day and dips for a time in early afternoon and then begins to drop again when we sleep, thinking and memory are sharpest when we are at our daily peak for circadian arousal... when we pull an all nighter we feel the groggiest at 4 am and get our second wind after our normal wake up time comes o Bright lights during the morning tweaks he circadian clock by activating light sensitive retinal proteins...these proteins control the circadian clock by triggering signals to the brains suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)a pair of rice grain sized 20,000 cell cluster in the hypothalamus ... o Suprachiasmatic nucleus- does its job in part by causing the brain`s pineal gland to decrease its production of the sleep inducing hormone melatonin in the morning and increase it during the evening o bright light at night helps delay sleep... resetting our biological clock when we stay up late and sleep in on weekends o our ancestors body clocks were attuned to the rising and setting sun of the 24 hour day... many young adults today adopt something closer to a 25 hour day by staying up too late to get 8 hours of sleep this is due to the invention of the lightbulb... being bathed in light, disrupts our 24 hour biological clock... (remember before... artificial light delays sleep) Sleep Stages - consciousness fades when we are sleeping as it overtakes different parts of our brains cortex to stop communicating - our brain in a sleeping state does not emit a constant dial tone because sleep has its own biological rhythm..about every 90 minutes we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages - REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep) was discovered by a graduate student who put an electroencephalograph near his sons eyes to record the rolling eye movements .... he realized that the fast jerky eye movements were accompanied by energetic brain activity - To study if similar cycles occur during adult sleep ... researchers tape electrodes to the scalp to detect brainwaves, just outside your eyes to detect eye movements and on your chin to detect muscle tension.... other devices allow the researcher to record your heart rate and respiration rate and your genital arousalChapter 8- Sleep and Dreams When you are in bed with your eyes closed, the researcher in the next room sees on the EEG (electroenecephalograph) the relatively slow alpha waves of your awake but relaxed ... you eventually slip into sleep - In a study, a man asked another man to press a button everytime he saw a flash, he missed one after a while because he claimed there was none, but there was and it was because he had fallen asleep for 2 seconds - During the stage 1 sleep you may experience fantastic images, like hallucinationssensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus... you may have a sensation of falling at which your body may suddenly jerk or floating weightlessly o Such hypnagogic sensations may later be incorporated into memories - After relaxing some more after stage 1, you proceed to stage 2 sleep which lasts about 20 minutes ... it is characterized by periodic appearance of sleep spindles (bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity) you are now clearly asleep. Sleeptalking usually occurs during this stage and you can easily be woken up - Then for the next few minutes you go through the transitional stage 3 to the deep sleep in stage 4, in stage 3 and increasingly in stage 4 your brain emits large slow delta waves, these two slow wave stages last for about 30 minutes during which would be hard to wake up. It is during this stage that children begin to wet the bed or begin sleep walking.... about 20 percent of 3-12 year olds have atleast one episode of sleep walking, usually lasting 2-10 minutes.... some
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