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[FALL 2013 UW] PSYCH 101 - LEC 4

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Richard Ennis

(Lec.4) Transduction: the conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights sounds and smells, into neutral impulses our brains can interpret There are three steps in transduction: 1) Reception – the stimulation of sensory receptor cells by energy (sound, light, heat, etc.) 2) Transduction – transforming this cell stimulation into neural impulses 3) Transmission – delivering this neutral information to the brain the be processed Senses: The EYE: Light enters through the cornea, pupil and the lens. The curvature and thickness of the lens change to bring either nearby or distant object into focus on the retina. Rays from the candle cause a reversal of the image in the fovea (point of central focus). The light then gets triggers a photochemical reaction and is transduced into neural impulses in the retina. The neural impulses go down the optic nerve towards the brain. The ganglion axons forming the optic nerve run to the thalamus, where they synapse with neurons that run to the visual cortex. Parallel Processes: is the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s neutral mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. This contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory: the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors- on sensitive to red, one to blue, one to green- which, when stimulated in combination can produce perception of any color Opponent process theory: the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enables color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red and vice versa TOUCH: Kinesthesis: the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts Vestibular senses: the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance  {PAIN} - Biological influences (Gate Control Theory): the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass onto the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in large fibers or by information coming from the brain - Psychological influences: having attention to pain and the learning basis from past experiences. This also leads to the expectations of pain - Social-cultural influences: the presence of others, and the empathy for others’ pain TASTE: Sensory interaction: the principle that one sense may influence another, as the smell of food influences its taste SMELL: Smell is linked to the limbic system which associates smell with memory and emotion. This involves the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and pituitary gland. Perception: FORM PERCEPTION: - Figure-ground: the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings DEPTH PERCEPTION: - The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two- dimensional; it allows us to judge distance MOTION PERCEPTION: - Stroboscopic movement: The brain perceives continuous movement in a rapid series of slight varying images - Phi Phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession PERPETUAL CONSTANCY: - Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, sizes, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change - Color Constancy: perceiving familiar objects having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object Perceptual Interpretation Perceptual Adaptation: in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field Perceptual Set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another In addition to this, perception of a given stimulus is dependent on the context of it, different context may give a different interpretation Human Factors Psychology: a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use Extra Sensory Perception (ESP): the controversial claim
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