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[FALL 2013 UW] PSYCH 101 - LEC 6

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University of Waterloo
Richard Ennis

(Lec.5) Learning: a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience  Note: Learning enables animals to adapt to their environments Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli, or a response and its consequences Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events  Unconditioned response: in classical conditioning, the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, salivation when food is in the mouth  Unconditioned stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically triggers a response  Conditioned response: in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus  Conditioned stimulus: in classical an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditional response Acquisition: the pairing of a neutral stimulus to a conditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response Higher-order conditioning: a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a neutral stimulus, creating a second conditioned stimulus.  {For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone} Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance after a pause of extinguished conditioned response Generalization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Expectancy: ties together cognitive learning with conditioning because the more predictable the association the stronger conditioned response, and the subject can learn the predictability of an event Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences Skinners Experiments: 1) Skinner developed a behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control. These principles enabled him to teach pigeons behaviors such as walking, playing ping pong, etc. One of such experiments incorporated the Operant chamber (Skinner box) where a box has a key that an animal presses in order to release food or water. Shaping behavior: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of desired behavior Reinforcers: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows  Positive reinforcement: increases behaviors by strengthening the response after a stimulus is presented  Negative reinforcement: increases behaviors by strengthening the response after a stimulus is removed  Primary reinforcement: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies biological need  Conditioned reinforcement: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its associations with a primary reinforcer Schedules of Reinforcement: Punishment: an event that decreases the behavior that it follows Ways to decrease behavior  Positive punishment: administer an aversive stimulus  Negative punishment: withdraw a desirable stimulus Consequences of punishment... 1) Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten 2) Punishment teaches discrimination 3) Punishment can teach fear 4) Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems Latent learning: learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation: a
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