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Lecture

PSYCH 101 Unit VI (a) Learning

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCH 101  Unit VII: Memory  Atkinson-Shiffrin Stages: The Basic Memory Process “ESR” • Memory is defined as sensation and perception across time o If we didn’t have memory, accommodation and assimilation to develop schemas would be impossible o Therefore, we need a method of taking in, storing, and accessing information that we have been sensitized to. • Encoding  Storage  Retrieval o Schematic structures need to be encoded in some way o Then, we require mechanisms that can store that information o Finally, at a later time, we also need mechanisms to retrieve/tap into the information at will • If any of the stages (encoding, storage, or retrieval) is not achieved, then effective memory of that given information will not be achieved either Separation of Information into Background and Foreground: • Background “noise” is not registered or processed to the STM, and therefore is forgotten very quickly • Foreground “information” is the information that we are interested in, the information that catches our attention, and is therefore registered and transferred to the STM. o Can be internally triggered:  There is a self-motivated or aroused reason to direct attention to perceive certain information (Arousal  Stimuli)  Example: Deciding to direction attention to listening to Professor Ennis’ lecture because he may have valuable information that helps us pass the course o Can be externally triggered:  Attention is directed to something because of a sudden change in the environment (Stimuli  Arousal)  Example: A loud noise at the back of the room causes you to shift your attention towards it. Memory as Explained by the Stage Model: • When we take in information and commit it to memory, that information can be subjected to different stages that allow it to be either recalled briefly or on a long-term basis o Sensory Memory  Short-term Memory  Long-term Memory • Sensory Memory: o The onset perception of information will be stored temporarily o When you see something the image will be in your mind for about 1 second’ likewise if you hear something it can be recalled for a few seconds o Capacity is high since information stored here is temporary o If the information is deemed to be “background noise” then it will be discarded relatively quickly o However, if it is useful information deemed as “foreground information”, then attention will be directed towards perceiving the information and it will be committed to STM  Often times existing memory is also used to determine whether or not new information is important • Short-term memory (STM): o If the sensory information was important, then the working memory attaches significance to the information and it is committed to short-term memory. o Information stored in STM is brief, and is usually restricted to information being used currently o Therefore its capacity is limited and exists in memory for less than 20 seconds o The brain tends to only be able to remember 5-9 bits of information when being transferred to STM  If the information is too much, the brain tries to find ways to chunk the information into more manageable pieces using existing schemas • Long-term Memory (LTM): o When information in STM is elaborately rehearsed over and over again to force deeper processing of that information, then it is transferred to long-term memory o Information stored in LTM is relatively permanent, or at the very least is stored for a
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