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Lecture

PSYCH 101 Unit IX Personality

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCH 101 Personality  PART I: Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): • Invented the psychodynamic approach and therefore dubbed as the father of psychiatry • Concerned with trying to understand the unconscious aspects of the human mind, using word association • The concept of the “psychologist couch” became prominent b/c Freud interviewed his patients in a comfortable setting to understand their inner workings • Freud began to interpret dreams in analysis in the 1900s, culminating to a published book of dream interpretations o He felt that interpreting his patients’ dreams could uncover a person’s neurosis\ o A man by the name of Johnson translated Freud’s book into English with the US and it became famous; Freud becomes famous as a result • Criticisms of Freud: o He lacked rigid scientific approach to coming to these dream conclusions o In a period of patriarchy he was criticized for sympathizing women Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytical Theories: • Focus on inner forces that interact to make us who we are • Behaviour, emotion, and personality develop dynamically (ever-changing) o There is always interplay between the conscious and unconscious minds causing motives and inner conflicts Developing Personality: • Personality is eventually comprised of 3 parts: Id, Ego, and Superego • Id: Pleasure o We start life primarily with a personality made up of id o We strive impulsively to meet the needs of our primal drives o Living is solely based on a “pleasure principle” • Ego: Reality o As we progress, the ego develops o It is a personality structure that has thoughts, judgements, and memories o Rooted in a “reality principle” o In early development the ego will focus on serving the id’s needs, but later on the reality principle acts as a mediator between the id and the superego • Superego: Morals o Past the age of 4/5 the super ego develops o Developed from influences of the parents and society o It is a conscience that internalizes ideas of morality based on the “morality principle” • Again, eventually the ego acts as a mediator between the id and super ego o A healthy person should have a balance of the two, being able to please the id, but do so in a morally correct way The Personality/Mind Iceberg: • The tip of the iceberg is the part we can readily see, sort of like our conscious mind o The ego, which is mostly conscious, makes peace with the id and superego o The ego would be like the tip of the iceberg • But there is a vast body of the iceberg that is submerged underneath the water, which is a lot like the unconscious mind below our conscious awareness o The superego lies just underneath and is the “preconscious”  It is outside conscious awareness but still readily accessible to make moral judgements o The id is the unconscious mind and is the deepest and most unconscious part of the mind  In Freud’s view, it is a reservoir of thoughts, wishes, feelings, etc. that are hidden from awareness b/c they are deemed unacceptable o Freud believed that the unconscious mind forms the basis of who we are, even if it is constantly covered up  Things in the unconscious can be brought back up using techniques like hypnosis Techniques of Psychoanalysis: • Free association: o Encouraging the patient to speak whatever comes to mind o The therapist then verbally traces a flow of thoughts into the past and into the unconscious o Freud also suggests meanings for slips of the tongue  “Freudian slips” o And for the latent content of dreams • Projective tests: o Structured and systematic exposure to a standardized set of ambiguous prompts (like ink blots) designed to reveal inner dynamics o The issue with this type of test is that the results don’t link well with traits and different people get different results o Example: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  This example of a projection test makes the patient formulate his/her own description on a displayed picture that does not have a description to begin with  The person is asked to explain what the picture is about by imposing their own ideas on the picture, which should tell the psychoanalyst about the patient  Measures the extent of achievement in people on whether a person has high achievement or low achievement based on how they describe the picture Dream Content: • Manifest content refers to a superficial meaning of the dream • The latent content refers to the hidden meaning that is derived from the manifest content • Example: o Broken arm (manifest)  Broken marriage vows (latent) o King and Queen (manifest)  Parents; authority figures (latent) o Entrances and exits (manifest)  Sex (latent) Freud’s Psychosexual Stages: Revolving around the conflicts of the inner mind, specifically the life force (eros) vs. the destructive force (thanatos), a person attempts to procreate. In the end, the destructive force wins out, but ideally over a normal lifetime a person should be able to procreate and continue their genes, thus continuing the life force. These are the stages of psychosexual development proposed by Freud: • Stage One: Oral (0-18 months) o Focus is on pleasure centers of the mouth  sucking, biting, and chewing o Erogenous zone:  Mouth  Developmental task: weaning o Dependent Personality Form of Oral Stage:  Fixation – excessive gratification  Results in passive, dependent, and gullible nature traits o Aggressive Personality Form of Oral Stage:  Fixation – Excessive frustration  Results in argumentative, cynical, exploitive, cruel, and sarcastic traits o Expressions:  Gum chewing, nail-biting, smoking, kissing, eating disorders, alcoholism • Stage Two: Anal (18-36 months) o Focus is on pleasure related to bowel and bladder elimination  coping with demands for control o Erogenous zone:  Anus  Developmental task: toilet training o Expulsive Personality Form of the Anal Stage:  Fixation: Excessive gratification  Results is sloppy, careless, messy, and disorderly traits o Retentive Personal Form of the Anal Stage:  Fixation: Excessive frustration  Results in compulsive cleanliness, orderly, rigid, and stubborn traits o Expressions:  Neil Simon’s “The Odd Couple” •
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