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Motivation.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct 29 2013 Motivation Characteristics • Invisible we infer something is there • Temporary • Intervening variable essential for performance Measurements 1) Intensity (energy, effort exerted, physiological arousal) 2) Choice (avoidance of other choices, selecting outcomes worthy of effort, how difficult the choice is describes its importance) 3) Persistence (commitment, effort post frustration) Mechanistic Approach Ie. cause us to behave in robotic/ predicable way Internal Forces 1) Instict – describes predicable behaviours under specific circumstances like a bird knowing how to build a nest (not learned) Evolutionary perspective - mom protecting baby - natural selection - describes behavior 2) Needs and Drives – • Clark Hull (1884) • Konrad Lorenz 1903 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] o studied animals and then compared human behavior, believed in an instinct to aggress • Sigmund Freud A drive is an aroused state related to a physical need (ie thirst or hunger) The Drive Reduction Theory – the idea that humans are motivated to reduce the drives to restore homeostasis. Psychodynamic Theory  Intrapsychic conflicts  To deal with it drive reducing behavior is used to reduce anxiety, it is not a successful approach but it’s a temporary one (ie gay man acting more manly)  C******* External Forces The Law effect – good outcome = more likely behavior. This shows that outcomes have incentive value. Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow 1908 - Carl Rogers 1902 Hierarchy of Needs Oct 29 2013 Believed humans are on a quest to become all they can be ^ all wrong. People who thought they knew who they were, were full of themselves Rogers Discrepancy Theory Thought we are always holding a model up ourselves “ideal self”. He believed we would never get to the ideal self because there is a deliberate difference of congruence. Healthy people “raise the bar” and try to resolve the discrepancy between the two selves. a. b.   A • Large discrepancy • Self-actualization would be difficult • Demotivating B • Less discrepancy • Self-actualization more attainable • Motivating Expectancy Approach A mathematical relation to motivation Henry Murray (1893) “the father or expectancy approach” thought humans are looking for the best deal & Albert Bandura (1925) Expectancy-Value Approach [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] • Motivation is the result of the outcome expectations and the incentive value of the outcome • Motivation = e x v • Consumers noticed that people do not always go for the most highly desirble – but settle • The more difficult the more premium • At 0.5 outcome expectation out of 1.0 we become aroused because it could go both ways • However not all people are entirely rational Self- Efficacy Theory  If I don’t think I can do it, why should I do it  Even if I think I have the behavior, I could not do it in the environment (ie singing alone vs singing on American idol)  Compares with confidence Efficacy Expectations o 2 belief sets o belief you possess skills o belief the skills can be execute under possible circumstances Outcome Expectations o belief that certain behaviors will likely produce certain outc
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