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Lecture 4

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Richard Ennis

Lecture 4 Drugs - Don’t do them - not natural opiates (ie: morphine) that have the same effect on the body as epinephrine (natural opiate would) - some have really bad known effects - some are still being studied, and are unknown - I was late for class, and missed this section:) (and wendy was later than I was:P) The Neurology of Addiction - Brain maintains homeostasis - increases or decreases neurotransmitters to compensate effect of addictive substance - our nervous system calls on more or less neurotransmitters as needed, ie, in response to pain more epinephrine will be given to the brain (opiates - natural one) - need increased dosage to experience same effect - unoccupied sites create craving/dependence - the body responds by creating less levels of endorphins, so then when you don’t get the amount of the drug that you usually shoot up with, you feel the effects of deprivation - your central nervous system continues to react to this increasing level, by decreasing - tells endorphin produces to stop. and you become dependent (addicted) to the drug you shot up - Brain learns to anticipate consumption - makes preemptive consumption - overdose potential - you begin to hurt because you depend on it, you want to get back to your original high, so you have to do so much more than ever - overdose: surprising the brain with the lead up to taking the drug, even though you have taken the normal amount of the same stuff you always did. - brain didn’t have the whole preparation of “going upstairs, turning on music, getting the stash, etc.” - a large percentage of o’d’s occur in the first amount - individual difference for drugs - dependancy - not neurologically essential to take, more physically required - vs addiction - neurological/psychological required - image on nervous system - see Fig. 4.7 in textbook - Parasympathetic (calming) vs Sympathetic nervous system (arousing) - read in text book - 4 F’s of sympathetic - Fear - Fight - Flight - Fornication (Sex or Fucking) Sensation and Perception ▯ Two Inseparable Processes ▯ Transduction ▯ Smell: The Rodney Dangerfield of hte Senses ▯ ▯ The smelly Facts etc. Quiz: What happens when you dissolve one drop of 3 methoxy-2-isobutylpyrazine in an Olympic size pool of water? - Distinct smell of green peppers etc. - Smell. - taste also... get regularly replaced Two Inseperable Processes - Sensation - physical sensing of environment - physiological - relatively objective - learning and experience not required - Perception - mental interpretation of environment - psychological - relatively subjective - learning and experience are required - From Sensory Ogans to the Brain 3 steps: - Reception - Transduction - uh.... I lost my tetris game:( try checking out the slides...:) Rodney Dangerfield - key line - ‘I got no respect’ Smelly Facts - only 3% of sensory neurons - compared to 30% devoted to vision - Only about 200 researchers worldwide - Human nose is one of the least sensitive in the animal kingdom - Yet we can detect one billionth of an ounce of odour in the air (dogs have a way better smelling system) smelling is now ‘recreational’ - Smell was our first sense - Our earliest brain was just an olfactory processor - every living organism has the ability to sense chemicals in the environment - the nose is the only place with a direct link to the brain.. - missed one! Smell: Odour Receptors - transduction process - the nose can be trained to smell certain things (ie, white mice...) - for animals, our snouts suck Thalamus - relay center - ‘reception desk’ - sorts out what’s going on - vision sent to vision area - smells sent to smell receptor - ‘redirection’ Smell and the Limbic System - Amygdala - linked to emotion - Hippocampus - linked to memory (other regions of the brain also are connected to emotion and memory also) Limbic System - plays a big role in the sympathetic nervous system and the 4 F’s Pituitary Gland - master endocrine gland The Right Chemistry - Breast fed infants - will smell their own mother on a cloth that has been rubbed on her breast - signature smells - each person has their own smell, some smell good, and some stink.. (kinda like someone by me right now..) - sexual turn-ons and turn-offs: no research has been proven to show that ‘subliminal messages’ actually affect the individual - ie, putting popcor
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