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PSYCH 101 Unit I Introduction to the Science of Psychology.docx

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University of Waterloo
Richard Ennis

PSYCH101UnitIIntroductiontoPsychologyCombinedNotesThe ABCs of Psychology A Affect the understanding of how things relate oFeelingsoEmotionsoMoodEg it is impossible to love without experiencing or having an idea of what love feels likeB Behaviour the understanding of actions because of emotions toward certain thingsoActionsoResponsesoPerformance Eg we may cringe when we see something that we find emotionally disturbing C Cognition the understanding of the thoughts rationale analysis etc on how a decision is made oThoughtsoDecisionsoAttitudes Eg We cannot understand a phenomenon unless we understand the thought process behind those ideas Sometimes these ABCs are congruent with one another agree However there are some times where they are incongruent with one another oExample A person who is racist towards black people decides to feed a black person when they beg for food The Basic ModelIn a given environment physical or social a person has a role Based on the role of the person heshe will exhibit certain behaviours based on the role that heshe plays Finally based on those behaviours exhibited outcomesproducts result In essence the basic model is comprised of 4 parts that can be summarized and related belowPerspectives of PsychologyPsychodynamic PERSONoDeals with subconscious forces within a personoDeveloped by Sigmund Freud who maintains that all actions in psychology are based on the subconscious of the personThe subconscious forces of id ego and superego determines the behaviour of the person Behaviourism BEHAVIOURoDeals with overt responsesoDeveloped by John Watson who opposed Freudian Psychodynamic approachesWatson argued that people behave based on the environment and that ones internal self is irrelevant Cognitive PERSON oFormed through the Cognitive Revolution 1950soSome behaviourists acknowledged that a person is more than an entity in the environment that simply responds But rather a person has a conscious aspect that dictates decisionmaking as more than just a response to the environment Biological PERSONoMaintains that decisions are made relative to things like various chemicals in our brain or our genetic makeupoAlso evolution has also influenced psychology whereby human thought processes have evolved and changed over time Sociocultural ENVIRONMENToBehaviour is influenced by groups culture and the general society which are all inherent in the external environment Goals of Science UPECUnderstandby observing the behaviour of people or things to better understand the behaviourPredictbeing able to know when a phenomenon may occur based on understanding how it worksExplainbe able to know why a behaviour occurs Controlcontrolling a phenomenon by first understanding it and then either prevent it from occurring or changing it to a desired outcome The Scientific Theory From Method to Method
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