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Lecture 4


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DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY I a. What is behavioruism ?  Pavloc and his dogs for classical  Skinner and his pigeons for operant  How do we learn how to speak  learning through watching others doing it. –the bobo doll b. Classical conditioning  Pavlov was a biologist, wanted to study the spit, why is it there, yadda yadda  Had test tubes hooked up to saliva of dogs to collect spit  Noticed that when food was served the spit was collected  Noticed after a few days of giving them food, that every time he walked up to the dogsn to give the food, the saliva would flow  The questiong became why were they salvating before the food was given to him  Let to experiements  Tuning fork + food introduced to the same time, and just turning fork after and dog savated  Tuning fork is a conditioned stimulus and paired with unconditioned stimulus  What is learning and unlearning?  In classical conidtiong, learning is the association of a conditioned stimulus or netural stimulus with an unconditioned stiimluus to the extent that the conditioned stimulus produces the unconditioned response.  Pavlov didn’t understand the implication of this very well, he did not realize what learning could come from this  John Watson o One of the early American behavioursits o Not going to study thoughts, but ill study what is observable o Uses pavlovian principles to teach o Give me 20 children and I can turn them into anything o Little albert was taught to be terrified of anything that is soft and furry o Idea was you could teach something to someone which did not make any sense, and they could learn to be afraid ofit o In some ways this si a model for phobia  Process of generalization o Albert was scared of eeverything o Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is changed slightly and the conditioned response still happens o Screaming and crying is the coniditioned response, it is something that can be observed  Discrimination o Occurs when the conditioned stimuls is changed and the conditioned response doesn’t happen o Starting to get unlearning o This would happen if little albert was afraid of rats but not bunnies, and could make the distinction between them o Can teach this process by only presenting the unoconditioned stimulus with the rat and never with the bunny  Extinction o Occurs when the coniditioned stimulus now the unconditioned response , no longer produces the response o According to the theory, extinction should happen eventually if the unconditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the conditioned stimuli  Problems with classical conditioning o The only behavior that can be affected is one that the organism, would normally do o Cannot get the organism to do new behaviours o c. operant condition  What operant condition allows for, and allows to happen, is behavours that would not naturally occur  Skinner proposed that any behaviorus that anyone engages in has been learnt through operant conditioning o What is operant conditioning?  How does an organism learn to do things it doesn’t normal do? How do you ever get behavior that doesn’t occur as an unconditional response (UCR)?  Skinner proposed that behavior that is rewarded will occur more often in the future  Behavior that is not reward will occur less often  According to skinner, amost all behavior is shaped in this way  Nothing mentioned about punishment  What skinner argued and very conclusively demonstrated was that complex behaviours can be shaped through rewards o Skinner and his pigeons  By rewarding pigeons with food for doing behaviours which he wanted them to do, he could teach them to do miraculous things  Playing beethovnen is a very complex behavior and is not something that pigeos do naturally  Real form of behaviourism  Learning is the acquisition of new behaviours o Types of reinforcers  Positive reinforce-getting good things  Negative reinforcer-removiing bad things (aspirin)  Both positive and negative reinforcers actually promote behaviours, make them more likely to occur  Note that negative reinforce is not a punishment  Skinner though punishment was a bad way to teach  When thing shappen that are percieed as bad or when good things are
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