Class Notes (837,971)
Canada (510,606)
Psychology (2,075)
PSYCH 101 (705)
n.a (5)
Lecture 3

Week 3-Behavioural neuroscience II.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document


Behavioural neuroscience II T HE SENSES Vision, parts of teye are corne, lens, iris, pupil, retina, and fovea The image is flippe don ther eina so its upside down, and focea is where we can s color and details well. The optin nerve goes into the rain and takes signls of retina to brain The retina has 3 types of cells • Gangilion cell ( closest to pupil) • Bipolar cell • Visual processors called cone ( color) and rod ( black and white) Neural impulse occurs when light hits cones and rods an visual processing occurs. The cortex allows us to understand Optic nerve travels to optic chiam and tract and into thalamus and raches visual cortex -bisions from eyes goes in oppositde sides in brain visual cortex turns light into shapes –feautre detetion. Feature detection • In cortex there are nidicidual cells that respond to lines at various angles • Take symbols of lines and create a pattern • Cells converge to creat our perception of what we see • Hgher level cells provide even more perception • All of this happens vistually instantaneously • Done with massice parallel processing of nifo • Not completely nderstod as tohwo the visual cortex organizes this info Color vision, this is hwere the young Helmholtz trichromatic theory is used • Comes from studing the retnia • Three types of cones in the retina, which respond to three types of light, primary coloours, red, green, and blue • All other colors can be made from these three • Could the specifity of the cones produce diffn colors? • Consistent with color bind o Red and gree,-problem with either green or red cones o Blue and green-no distinction between blue and green cones • Theory works will until we talk about the color yellow o Brain responds to yellow as a primary color THE OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY OF COLOR VISION • There area actually three sets of opposing pairs of colors • If you stare at something green, yellow and black, and if you look at a blank page, you get the british flag with blue, white and red • Why?? The neurons associated with tose colors wll fire, but they will eventually wear out • The lack of firing is now interpreted as f the red, blue and white are firing thus creating the after image effect • Afterimage effect is when the brain thinks that the reverse colours are firing Both of these theories are probably tue but is diffn areas of the brain. The trichromatic view, is at the reinal leve, you hve three types of cones which work together to produce all the dfferent colours The opponent-process view is truin in the thalamus, higher up in the brain as it is processing things. Hearing The parts of the ear, outer ear, middle ear and inner ear Outer ear-pinna, and auditory canal, Middle ear-ear drum, responds to sound waves, bones of middle ear, transmit sounds mechanically Inner ear-bones push on oval window of cochlea, and semicircular canals are responsible for balance. Ochlea turns physical stimular into neural impulses. Coming out of the cochlea is the auditory nerve Cochlea • Sound waves move ear drum, hammer, anvil and stirrup which pushes on oval window, which moves fluid of cochlea • The basical membrane of cocklear membra has hair, and as solution passes by, and the beding of the hair is what starts the neural impulse to the auditory nerve Place theory • The hairs bent over by the wave, determine what type of pitch there will be. • Big wances are going to hit back a lot further, creating a one pith while be low sounds, low sounds makes bigger waves • Higher sounds are going to make littler waves, which land closer in, creating high pitch osound • This theory cant explain the high sounds that we are capable of hearing Frequency Theory • Is it the speed of the waves, in the cochlea that dteremines pitch • Big waves go slower, and little waves go faster Both theories seem to be true. • Place theory worsk well for high sounds, and it is the particular hairs that matter • Frequency theory explains low aounds, it is the frequency of the waves The other sense:tast, smell, touch, pain and balance Taste • Foud basics-sweet, sour, salty and bitter • Tongue has tastebuds that respond to these different tastes • Bitter at the back, sour at the back side, salty on the side, and sweet at the tip • Taste sensations are created by chemical reations on the tastebuds • Taste heavily influenced by smell • Together they respond to much of the same stimuli-this is called sensory interaction • Often what enhances the flavor of fod, is the smell rather than the particular combination of sweet, salty, sour, and bitter Smell • Occurs due to a chmcl reaction in the olfactory membrane that creates smell • We still do not understand exactly how receptors in the olfactory membrane work • Chmcl that is I nthe air pgets pick up by these receptors I nthe olfactory membrance which creaes a neural impulse to the brain • Odors can powe
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.