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Lecture 6


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University of Waterloo

Cognitive Psychology-Week 6 A, Cognitive Psychology I-MemoryL The Big Picture • Memory is one of the oldest topics in psych. • b. Stages of Memory • Different timings of memory is one stage of memory o Registers incoming info, and brain captures for a moment a sea of faces o Encoding is the attention to important or nevel information. o Short term memory-activated memory that holds a few items briefly such as the 7 degitis of a phone number while dialing before info is stored or forgotten o Long term memory is the permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system o Encoding from short term memory leads to long term memory, o If you want to talk about something, youd retrieve it from long term memory to short term memory so that it can be talked about o 3 types of memory: sensory, short term and long term • think of it in terms of the process that occuers in making memory happen o process of encoding, storage, and retrieval o we can have problems when we don’t remember things o the info may not have been encoded properly o could have trouble remembering, maybe lost in storage o can have trouble retrieving info C. Effortful memory How much do we retain? • How long for short term memory? o Short term memeory is limited not only in term of the length but also in how much we can hold there o The basic rule is the short term memory can only hold seven plus or minus two objects o 7 +/- 2 things in short term memory o Bell labs figured out how many digits the short term memory can retain • Long term memory o We forget much of what we learn o Repeatition is a way to aid in retaining memory  Tips to study, going over it again and again can teach the material to you over and over. Cues that ingluence Memory • Memory somewhere between terrible and super • Ebbinghau’s basic ideas can be dramatically influenced by cues • There are all kids of different cues that can influence memory • Semantic cues are helpful for memory • Semantic cues greatly improve memory • Cues related to self concept are even better o The best cues are thost that can be processed by and are relevant to the individual o If you understand how it matters to you, you ill remember it better o Self reference effct=seeing how something refers to the self helps one to remember it better o Context effects  Other cues can happen through the environment and situation  State dependent memory: better remembering things if we are in the same state we were in when the info was learnt  Alcohol and memory studies  Mood: in a happy mood we can remember things that are consistent with the mood that we are in  Depressed people will remember sad things in their life, and not a good prescription for getting out of the depressive state that they are in  Stay in the same environment when learning Interference in Memory • There is interference that occurs between the new information that we are learning and the old information that we already know • New+ old • Learning one language can actually facilitate learning abother, but it can also cause interference. • Proactive intereference o Screws up what you learn after ( new) m mixing up French and spanish • Retroactive interference o Learning something new screwing up old language. ( learning Spanish and you already know French, and your French gets messed up) Strategies to Improve Memory • Mnemonic devices o Sayings or patters that can be developed to help to remember things o Memories will only assit in remembering lists of items, not their meanings o Musical scales, every good boy does fine o OCEAN-openess, conscientiones, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism o Often just knowing a list of things is not useful • Chunking o Groups items together into diffnerent groups o Particulary helpful for short term memory, in that it allows you to keep more information o Chunking also allows for smaller number of things to remember at one time. D. Memory without awareness • Sutle things can influence an individual • We can be influenced by a numer of things outside our awareness that can affect our memory • Priming-audio taken from in class demonstration • Very subtly p
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