CHAPTER 10: THINKING, PROBLEM SOLVING, AND REASONING
1. WHAT IS THINKING?
-Going beyond the information given (Bruner, 1957).
-Complex and high-level skill that fills up gaps in the evidence (Bartlett, 1958).
-Process of searching through a problem space (Newell & Simon, 1972).
-What we do when we are in doubt about how to act, what to believe, or what to desire (Baron,
(1) Focused thinking (e.g. goal based, problem solving)
(2) Unfocused thinking ( e.g. daydreaming, unintentional, creative thinking?)
A. Thinking Problems
have beginning and end
rule or guidelines
? (they’re ill defined)
3. PROBLEM SOLVING TEHNIQUES
A. Generate and Test
As the name suggests:
-Generate a number of solutions, then
-Test the solutions
Useful if there is a limited number of possibilities
-Too many possibilities
-No guidance over generation
-Can’t keep track of possibilities tested
B. Means Ends analysis
Problem space (Newell & Simon, 1972)
-Initial state: conditions at beginning of problem
-Goals state: condition at the end of problem
-Intermediate states: the various conditions that exist along pathways between the
initial and the goal state
-Operators: permissible moves
Reduce the difference between initial state and goal state.
Involves generating a goal and then sub-goals
Any sequence of moves beginning at the initial state and ending at the final goal state