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Lecture

Module 03 Lecture Notes.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 207
Professor
Spencer Stephen

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MODULE 03 Lecture Notes  INTRODUCTION TO PERCEPTION   Perception operates at the so‐called front‐end of human behaviour—the way you decide to use an object  will depend on what you believe that object is—so, in order to study higher order cognitive processes  (e.g. memory, decision‐making, language), it is important to understand earlier, more basic cognitive  processes like perception.  PERCEPTION AS A BOTTOM‐UP/DATA DRIVEN PROCESS  ‐ Travels in one direction: Stimulus  Output (and passively)  ‐ Three Major Classes:  o Template Matching: stimulus registered and compared, in its entirety, to templates in  memory until a match is found and the object (or smell, sound, taste) can be identified   Problems:  ‐ Depends on physical match between a stimulus and stored  representation—does not capture inherent flexibility  ‐ Requires that a large number of templates must be stored and searched  ‐ Does not explain how we recognize a new object that we’ve never  encountered before  ‐ Does not explain how we can deal with surface variation in stimuli (e.g.  different handwriting of the same word or sentence or an upside down  mug is still a mug)  o Feature Analysis: objects are recognized by their component parts (or features) and the  manner in which they are combined   Selfridge’s Pandemonium Model (1959)  ‐ Based on “dumb demons” (or “feature analyzers”) that “scream” when  they encounter a stimulus they were  trained to recognize  ‐ Step one: an “image demon” encodes stimulus into the model and is  examined by many “feature demons”  ‐ Step two: a “feature demon”, which represents only one feature,  “screams” when it sees itself in the stimulus—the more confident it is,  the louder it will scream  ‐ Step three: “cognitive demons” are trained to listen for screaming for  specific “feature demons” and scream louder when more of their  “feature demons” are screaming  ‐ Step four: a “decision demon” listens for the loudest “cognitive demon”   Pros:  ‐ More flexible than template matching  ‐ Space‐efficient: allows for storage of features (along with assembly  instructions), reducing the number of templates that need to be stored  ‐ Neurophysiological evidence support this position—Hubel and Wiesel 
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