May 14 th 2013 The Brain
hindbrain injury worst possible.
Structure of the brain:
Brain planes: Different ways to slice the brain
Midsagittal plane (when you have a fmri and see the inside of the middle of the
Sagirral plane (when you have a fmri and see the outside of the middle of the
Major structures in the brain:
Hindbrain – starting at the back is the most basic evolutionary
These are the oldest parts of the brain and the most basic:
1. Medulla oblongata – transmits from body to brain regulates life support (the most
basic things that keep you alive – digestion, respiration)
2. Pons – neural relay – left body right brain
3. Cerebellum – coordinates muscular activity, general motor behavior and balance
4. Midbrain – neural relay from the cerebellum to forebrain
5. Corpus callosum – complicated neural network that connects the 2 hemispheres
1. Frontal lobe – Cognition, higher order thinking, attention and executive functions
(planning, decisions making) also motor cortex is on the back of this lobe.
2. Parietal lobe – Somatosensory context (pain, pressure, touch and temperature)
Homunculus (little man –this cortex is in itself a little man. Every body part has a
section in the cortex (2 strips – motor and sensory) the size dedicated in the brain
represented in a model human. Pennfield. ) There is integration of sensory
information. Also language and spatial sense.
3. Temporal lobe – Takes a lot of basic things and starts to do more complicated
things. Auditory information and higher order visual function. Along with language,
memories and emotion.
4. Occipital lobe – Anything to do with vision. Very back of the brain
- Brain stem
Localization of function:
- Historically used to be phrenology (bumps on the skill) Gall (1758-1828)
Two faulty assumptions: 1. They thought the size of the brain region that did a certain thing affected how
well it functioned; “big moral section” means that you had more morals.
2. Independence of functions: There was no connection between sections. But
actually it is all connected.
Cognitive neuropsychology: study of cognitive deficits in brain damaged individuals
(typically accidents of stroke)
Neuropsychology (brain) vs. cognitive neuropsychology (mind)
Human brain lesions:
Naturally occurring/surgical lesions.
1. Examine a group of people with similar lesions (typically examine control
group of patients with different regions.)
2. Examine a group of individuals with similar cognitive impairment and then
examine the brain regions
Double disassociation: typically involved 2 patients both show a disassociation but
the 2 occur in opposite directions. (Patient1 is impaired in task x not y and Patient 2
is impaired in tsk y not ex)
Part X Broca: damage there means you have halting and broken (remember like
Part Y Wernicke: damage there mean you can talk fast but its gibberish
Patient with damage to area X is impaired for cognition A but not cognition B
Patient with damage to area Y is impaired for cognition B but not cognition A
Max Colthert: 2 factor theory of delusional belief
A false belief based on an incorrect inference about reality that is firmly sustained
despite what almost everyone believes.
1. Where does the delusion come from? Content specific brain damage
2. Why is it not rejected? Right hemisphere frontal lobe damage (belief