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Memory Structures.docx

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Nathaniel Barr

Memory Structures 3 definitions of memory: - A location where info is kept (memory story) - The record that holds the contents of experience (a memory trace) - The mental process (es) used to acquire (learn), store and retrieve (remember) previous experiences (a memory process) For long time mind was about Philosophy – no one had systematic approach. ************************************************************************************ Ebbinghaus: spent 830 hours memorizing and doing 85,000 syllables in 6,600 lists. Nonsense syllables. Record time or number of trials required to learn lists in its entirety. He did systematic way of testing his own memory, which no one else had done! He emphasized learning in the laboratory under tightly controlled conditions. Bottom up. Batlett: 1933 Opposite of ebbinghaus, he emphasized learning under natural conditions without tight conditions. Meaning by using real worl text materials and stories. Top down processing. His method” repeated reproduction: recall the same material on several occasions, with the same person. They omitted details, mood from the story. How they distort the story. (ex. Telephone) Thought memory wasn’t literally recall. But ebbinghaus didn’t think that was memory. Being able to completely replicate something isn’t showing anything… Control vs. Ecological validity  isolation vs. interaction Modal Model: Sensory memory: must be further processes, requires memory to be processed. Iconic (visual) – Duration less than 1 sec Sperling (1960) – Full report: report as many as possible, all the letters you can remember from the matrix time thing report about 4/12 Partial report: Report only those in the cued row about 3 items therefore they are doing better here than on the full report. They attended to the whole thing, but AFTER only reported on one! Report immediately after stimulus offset, he manipulated the time between stimulus and response. Echoic (auditory) – 4-5 sec If you says something like have a nice day after giving a phone number it might block the number! What is the ecological purpose of sensory memory? Haber said it had no function. Ensures that the visual system has some minimum amount of time to process said others. Short term: 7 +/- 2. Chunking: re-organize the capacity by organizing it into meaningful units. Miller: short term memory span. The importance of prior experience and practice, the availability of meaningful associations, storage in LTM. Meta meta know how memory works and exploit it. Spoken numbers (spoken at a rate of one digit every second.) Trace decay theory: automatic fading of memory trace Interference theory: something from the past that is a related topic will mess with it (proactive) in (retroactive) you learn B in between learning and recalling A. Forgetting in STM – release from proactive interference: the critical manipulation is on the final trial, control has to remember the letters, and the experimental group has to remember the numbers. ************************************************************************************ Working memory: visual spatial sketch pad (memory for visual info) and phonological loop (memory for verbal info) are functionally independent. If they are functionally i
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