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CHAPTER 7 Psych 211

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Chris Burris

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CHAPTER 7: PHYSICS, SPACE, BIOLOGY, NUMBER PAGE 216 to 223 (IMPORTANT)  OBJECT PERMANENCE - Piaget claimed origin at 8 months - Contradicted by Violation of expectation - Turning off lights! (Including big and small objects) – big objects required two hands, small objects required small hands - A not B error o 8 – 12 months o The famous youtube video o You have two usually identical location; at first, you’ll hide an object at location A (2 or 3 times) and then an infant will reach for it, the time you hide it at location B, the infant will still search for the object at location A though he sees the object being hidden in Location B  Why does A not B error happens: According to Piaget: - Infants don’t understand independent existence of objects from action - The child’s act of searching causes the object to exists  Some Later Findings: All contradict Piaget - Less errors if containers are different - Errors increase with delay - Errors increases as # of A trials increases - Errors can occur even if transparent cups used - Looking versus reaching – the eyes drives the answer but contradicted by hands Explanations tend to focus on: - Motor response – maybe when the kid is repeatedly reaching to Location A, then the Kid will have this motor habit and just automatically do it even if the right location is B - Memory Trace – You put the object multiple times in one location and not in the other location and that makes your memory stronger NEW APPROACH: PEDAGOGICAL STANCE - 3 conditions: one experimenter acting normal (ostensive communicative), having eye contact to kid, smiles and talking directly to the kid; one condition (non-communicative) is not having an eye contact, not engaging to the child at all; one condition (non-social) has no experimenter at all - Data: o Ostensive communication has the weakest correct answer when the location is at B, it increases as to Non-communicative and non-social conditions (children get better) o Claim: the child is expecting to learn something from A that’s why they keep searching on A o Nativist Claim: The kids were destructed by the experimenter that’s why they choose the wrong location CONTACT AND CAUSALITY - Michotte’s Launching event - The red ball causing the blue ball move - 22 weeks not month* textbook typo o Infants expect: Inanimate objects require contact to start moving o If delay happens, there’s no causation - - Contact Familiarization o the purple and red balls – covered or not o kids weren’t more surprise when there’s no wall in the middle of the ball; were more surprise with the wall in the middle - Solidity o When do infants know that things are solid? o Infants looked longer on a ball that fell in the floor, not on the table o This means that kids already know that things are already solid o SEE SLIDE!!!! o Manual search version of shelf task (child on youtube) o Tubes task – the ball falls on A and moves out on C tube but the Kid will still look at A tube - Support and Gravity o Gradual accumulation of knowledge why do things fall o At 3 months old, children were surprised to see objects floating o But precocity, followed by error! o Tubes task – the ball falls on A and moves out on C tube but the Kid will still look at A tube - 2-3 yrs olds make “gravity error” - Error reduced in up-side down version (implies gravity bias) (UPSIDE DOWN TV example) hear phone - turning the TV upside down, reduced the mistakes 03/05/12: WHY DO INFANTS “SUCCEED” WHERE PRESCHOOLERS FAIL? SPACE - Basic dichotomy – good at mental rotation bad at navigation - Mental rotation and things we can hold - Navigation – move through larger spaces  Space and Navigation - Finding food, shelter, mates - Avoiding predators, enemies, danger  Egocentric (viewer referenced) (not in Piaget’s sense) - Viewer or mover’s reference; keeping track of your body and where it is - E.g.: dead reckoning (having sense of starting location based on your movements) o E.g.: ants – they can go back home with a straight line - Blindfolding yourself won’t know where you are but you can still keep track of where you are because of your own egocentric sense of space - Dead reckoning error in book****  Allocentric (externally referenced) - Cue learning (not really spatial) o Having a sense of which landmarks are near which landmarks but not having a sense of direction actually o If you’re good at navigating, you’re bad at this o E.g.: object is… on box, in field, near table; the professor I’m looking for, his door is green - Place learning o Codes distance and direction o Testing place learning:  Do kids have a sense of distance at all?  Sandbox task  5 feet
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