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Lecture 12

Lecture 12.docx

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Mattieu Lecorre

Lecture 12 - First 6 months, babies do not know their own names and will not recognize it What would you need to learn to understand video? - Words! o Meanings: what each word refers to o In Spanish, the meaning of “almohada” is pillow - Syntax, tone, context, arrangement of words of where it begins and ends, changes the meaning of that particular word - How do you know what the words are? o Segmentation: what does one word end and the next begin?  Few silences between words, and some within words!  So speech stream is often ambiguous o Phonology: what changes in sound count as new word?  In English, changing “I” to “r” makes a different word (lake vs. rake). Not in Japanese  In Zulu, adding a click can make a different word. Not in English.  In all languages: change from child voice to adult voice don’t make a difference o What combinations are allowed?  There must be a meaningful way of splitting the speech into parts of understandable content - Words are not enough o Syntax: how words combine to express relations between meanings  In English, order matters  Jennifer loves Brad. (But does Brad love Jennifer?)  In Chinese, use different order  Zhenni Brad xihuan (Jennifer loves Brad)  In Turkish, word from matters  Jennifer Brad’I sever = Jennifer’I Brad sever  In all languages, syntax specifies who is the lover and who is loved - Words + syntax are not enough o Pragmatics: the same sentence can mean different things  “Great outfit!” What kids know about their language by about age 3… - 3 year old - Knows quite a lot! - How do they learn it? Children learn from their parents! - “the English language, and other languages, are institutions like country dancing or the game of cricket: cultural creations that individuals may learn during their lifetimes, if they happen to be born into the appropriate cultures, but to which no one is innately predisposed”. – Geoffrey Sampson, “The Language Instinct Debate” - Language is learnt through object association with sounds (eg. Language) Children are designed to learn language! - “the fact that all normal children acquire essentially comparable grammars of great complexity wit
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