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Lecture 17

Lecture 17.docx

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Mattieu Lecorre

Lecture 17 Stages over time - Represents the US population - Dominant moral philosophy in childhood/tweens: PREconventional - Dominant moral philosophy in mid-teens in adulthood: Conventional o Note: “Good boy/girl” remains very common! - Last moral philosophy to emerge (remains very rare): POSTconventional - Stage 6 is missing on this graph o This is the ideal form of moral reasoning o He never found stage 6 o He eventually dropped stage 6 and did not include it - Longitudinal study shows: Although not all reach highest stage, almost no one skips stages o Only 4% skipped or went back a stage Find same systematicity in other cultures? - Kohlberg took his dilemmas to kids in small villages in Malaysia, Mexico, Taiwan & Turkey - Examples from 10 to 13 year olds in Taiwan & Malaysia - Dilemma: Man’s wife will die if doesn’t get food. Should man steal food? (Adapted version of Heinz) Superficial vs. “deep” analysis - At superficial level, cultures look different o Taiwan: It is one’s duty to pay for funerals o Malaysia: Keep your wife so she will take care of your home - At deeper level – ie. Type of justification given – the two kids are the same o Both kids were at K’s stage 2: instrumental orientation  Universal: justify in terms of personal gains/losses  Cultural: what stands out as gain or loss - Beyond these two kids, when looks for type of justification, K finds first 5 stages in all cultures studied o Variation: rate of change across stages. Some groups are “slower” than others What’s interesting about this… - Simplicity underlying diversity o Part 1: one general moral philosophy (level) applied to wide range of moral dilemmas  Each child solves 25 dilemmas  50% of subjects used the same moral philosophy for all dilemmas o Part 2: it only takes 3 philosophies (levels) to account for reasoning patterns of boys with various SES, various social status amongst their peers, various cultures and varying ages! - Invariant sequence of development: don’t go through stage N+1 without first having gone through stage N - Why those 3 philosophies and only those 3? - Why always develop in this sequence? Whence the sequences of stages? - Stages = increasingly adequate conceptions of justice o Justice: “the primary regard for the value and equality of all human beings and for the reciprocity of all human relations” (Kohlberg) o Just solution takes rights and obligations of all individuals into account o So justice requires skilful perspective-taking - Psychological change: advance through stages as expand capacity for per
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