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Chapter 11 Textbook notes Detailed and organized textbook notes for Chapter 11, from "Infants and Children" by Laura E. Berk. Applies to the 6th and 7th editions. Includes all definitions in bold.

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Tom Ruttan

Chapter 11Physical Development in Middle Childhood Body Growth Worldwide Variations in Body Size o Heredity and environment both account for differences in body size o Children who grow tallest usually reside in developed countries where food is plentiful and infectious diseases are controlled o In contrast small children usually live in less developed regions Secular Trends in Physical Growth o Secular trends in physical growth are changes in body size from one generation to the next o they have taken place in industrialized regions o gain in height has slowed in recent decades o weight gain is continuing at a high rate Skeletal Growth o bones lengthen and broaden but are not yet firmly attached to bones o nighttime growing pains are common as muscles adapt to an enlarging skeleton o between ages 6 and 12 all primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent onesgirls lose earlier than boys o dental health affects the childs appearance speech and ability to chew properly o most kids need help with flossing until the age of 9 o malocclusion o upper and lower teeth do not meet properly occurs in 13 of schoolage children o can be caused by thumb and finger sucking after permanent teeth come out o another cause is crowding of permanent teeth Brain Development o white matterlargely consists of myelinated nerve fibers o increases steadily throughout childhood especially in frontal lobes of cerebral cortex parietal lobes and corpus collosumo gray matterneurons and supportive materialo declines as a result of synaptic pruning and lateralization increases o over time neurons become increasingly selective and only respond to certain chemical messages o when neurotransmitters are not present in appropriate balances children may suffer serious developmental problems such as inattention and overactivity o brain functioning may change in mid childhood due to hormones o 78 there is an increase in androgens secreted by adrenals of both sexesAffect brain organization and behavior in many animal species
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